American History

Question 1: Summary of causes and results ofthe Great Depression

The Great Depression had a variety of causesranging from weaker demand for consumables due to low productioncosts, to over investment and speculation, which led to inflatedprices. Banks loaned out using stocks as collateral and buying ofmore stocks, which led to ultimate bank failures as people wronglypriced stocks. As a result, banks took down businesses connected tothem hence an outlay of bankruptcies, curtailed consumption andlayoffs at workstations.

President Hoover reiterated severally thatgovernment intervention was not viable to help the weakening economy.He adopted austerity techniques usually cutting spending further but,later he was forced against his will by congressional representativesto intervene which he did reluctantly. Citizens branded him as coldand having no mercy to the majority of the poor when they weresuffering. In contrast, Roosevelt agreed to almost every plan andpolicies made up by advisors and congress legislations. Efforts weremarked as either relief (short term), recovery (long term) or reform(permanent solutions). In his tenure, there was existence of new dealwhere though conservative it meant to save fundamental institutionsand capitalism of citizens from adverse effects of the GreatDepression. Despite his efforts, America did not fully recover fromDepression until after the World War II, which boosted economicproduction and ended the Depression. Nevertheless, critics saw thecreeping socialism in spite of liberalists view as a successful wayof solving economic and social problems. (Extracted from pages 688 to701)Top ofFormBottom of Form

Question 2: Admiration of Theodore and EleanorRoosevelt

I admire Theodore and Eleanor Roosevelt as otherpeople admire them due to the contribution they made during theProgressive Era. Theodore was phenomenon for his exuberantpersonality, leadership of movements such as progressive one, socialcultural protection, patriotism, unity in division and gain sense ofpurpose among citizens. In fact, Theodore led the Progressivemovement to new height and ensured the development of conservationismin America. In fact, Roosevelt developed the presidency into a strongdomain of authority, which has earned him the name of the architectof the contemporary presidency.

In close similarity was Eleanor married toPresident Franklin Roosevelt who being the first lady left a legacywith a lineage of achievements. She fought against racial issues,unemployment issues, civil rights of women and children, rights ofrefugees and civil rights of minority groups in America. She chairednewly formed UN commission on human rights (UNCHR) and laterpresidential commission on status of women (PCSW). At her demise, shewas termed as one of the most respected women in the universe whereshe was ranked top ten in an award of most admired people in theworld (576 – 600)

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Question 3: Effect of the Great Depression onthe Hispanics

Dust bowl generally refers to the movement ofmigrants who moved from town to town in search of job long ago beforeeven Depression time was apparent and was to be onwards afterwardsfor decades. Many were ethnic and racial minorities working for lowwages and poor conditions. The Great Depression just exaggerated thewhole issue, as unemployment was a household terminology.

Mostly affected were African Americans, Hispanicsand Asian Americans as white people demanded placing for their lowjobs that they were undertaking. This affected them adversely as theywere left homeless with nothing to eat and no money to pay rent. Theywere discriminated by all employers, which is not a human right as ishumanly (700 – 703).

Question 4: Who did Americans admire in the1930s?

Propaganda of the Second World War developedheroes in the minds of many Americans Fascist Italy and Mussoliniwere highly rated. Most Americans rated Mussolini highly due to theEthiopian war where they saw him as a figure of greatness for ages ashe influenced constitution establishment. Hand in hand was America’sambassador residing in Italy who people regarded highly as he praisedMussolini’s regime. On the other hand, most people regardedRoosevelt as a true hero due to his charisma. In addition, the newdeal during his rule earned him respect from his people. I agree withthe Americans admiration of Roosevelt, but not Mussolini since duringthe World War II, Mussolini sided with Hitler to fight against theAllied Powers. (690 – 720)

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Question5: Causes and results of World War II

A series of reasons helped lead to the outbreak ofthe Second World War especially the treatment of Germany in thetreaty of Versailles. In addition, the Great Depression forcedcountries to make desperate moves, which contributed to the war, assome countries such as Germany wanted to demonstrate its superiority.These conditions led to the ascendancy of Hitler to power as theGerman Chancellor in 1930’s. Upon, his ascendancy, Hitler convincedcitizens that he would restore German honor mortgaged through theTreaty of Versailles (ToV). Later, Hitler ordered for rearmament,which was a direct inconsistency with signed treaty so Germans had achance to restore their pride in their country providing an avenuefor war. The Germany attack on Poland led to the outbreak of the wareventually although France and Britain had kept quite as Germany maderemarkable moves that would soon contribute to the war.

  • The war led to significant loss of lives and property

  • In addition, it led to the creation of the League of Nations to maintain world peace and stability

  • The war contributed significantly to development of weapons especially the use of nuclear weapon

  • It led to the emergence of the US as a world power. (718 – 750)

Effects of world warII range from split of German (one communist portion and the othercapitalist) to formation of United Nations to solve world problems.Furthermore, USA and allies became superpowers whereas japan hadmajor outbreak of leukemia as a result of bombings Analysis of thewar stands that US could have dealt with Hitler directly instead ofwaiting when he attacks and spoils that is when they attack indefence. Top of Form

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Question 6:Life on the home front during

Franklin Roosevelt, the reigning president spokeabout tremendous changes in the war, majorly basing his arguments ona war in one front and one battle and asserted that the war wouldinvolve every woman man or child. Therefore, as the war was embeddedin all circles including daily tasks and live at large so everyonehad to remain active in action all through the year.

As a result, industries competed for humanresources with incentives such as reasonable hours, high wages, paidmaternity offs, medical care, and daycare facilities. School-goingchildren would work at farms as demand for more food grew. In spiteof many women working in industries, there was not any singlenational support program to follow up their benefits and workconditions promised to them. Hence, discrimination developed in termsof hiring, unemployment policies that opted for men, wagediscrepancies and dress codes. Moreover, once war ended men returnedto their jobs as usual and women’s benefits like maternity leavedisappeared making it hard for working class women to continueworking i.e. after the war most women returned to their roles ashomemakers or cares of children.

The changes as analyzed above were so criticalsuch that if people never cooperated as they did they were bound tofail in their efforts to recover from economic difficulties and highdemand for labor to manufacture more weapons. In contrast, they wouldhave maintained the work conditions in play then unlike how theydestabilized already established women work groups who had dedicatedthemselves fully. (725 – 745)Topof FormBottom of Form

Question 7: Post-War Era (1945-60)

Aftermaths of world war were an economic boom,which brought unequal success to most of citizens and gave hope toAmericans expectations that the country would solve easily socialand economic problems. However, struggle for people’s rights aroseas so did the emergence of the human rights movements start todevelop. In another context, people saw the US as a super power tosolve world military and economic problems thus, foster peace ofother nations, which was a burden to befall them. (778 – 800)

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Question 8: The Cold War

The Cold War refers to a period of conflict,antagonism and tension that existed just after World War II betweenUSA as leaders of western countries and Soviet Union in relation withtheir satellites. Espionage, military coalitions, propaganda,invasions, weapons development and competing technological advancesbetween 1940 and 1990 marked the period.

Causes

  • Soviet Union’s demand for communism worldwide was against Americans culture of democracy

  • Americans were believed to be acquiring atomic weapons so instilling fear in their rivals

  • Each of the two super powers feared attack from the other due to combined mass destruction

  • USA were unhappy with the Soviet Union’s decision to take over Eastern Europe

  • Leaders of the two nations also hated each other

  • The Soviet Union’s partial occupation of Germany was annoying to USA

  • Soviet Union feared attack by rivals using Western Europe as their base

Effects

  • Buildup of enormous arsenals of ballistic missiles and atomic weapons

  • Military blocs were formed NATO for USA and Warsaw Pact for Soviet Union which disintegrated later

  • Resulted in destructive wars like Korean and Vietnam wars

  • Collapse of Soviet Union owing to their economic weakness

  • Berlin Wall was destroyed hence uniting the two German nations

  • Soviet Union’s republics gained independence and communism collapsed

  • USA became sole world super power (752 – 769)

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10: Thee Korean War and Vietnam wars

The two wars had some similarities, since bothwars arose due to division of countries after war, millions ofrespective citizens died in the wars, America’s efforts to containcommunism was not successful too as well as control of both countriesby foreign states. On the other hand, differences were apparentregarding elections where Korea held elections to separate, butVietnam stayed united even after the war. Furthermore, the US andsome democratic nations protected southern part of Korea fromcommunists though they lost to southern Vietnamese.

US in spite of being a super power would havethought of better ways to influence change from communism unlikegoing to the war. Though they won partially, there were better waysto deliberate and solve issues at hand especially through diplomacy.(830 – 851)Topof Form

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Question 12: Civil Rights movement

The Civil rights were social movements centered ondefinite goals of ending racial discrimination and segregationagainst African- Americans thereby achieving legal acknowledgementand federal protection. The movements were founded on rights based inconstitutional amendments established during the Civil war.Nonviolent activism like boycotts, sit-ins and marches characterizedthe movement. Some court cases such as Brooks’s case (1951) aboutequality in schools became synonymous with the movement thus, themovements through boycotts led to the dissipation of the segregationexperienced in the country. (790 – 801)

Works Cited

Goldfield, David, Carl Abbott, Virginia Anderson, Ann Argersinger,Peter Argersinger, William Barney, and Robert Weir., The AmericanJourney: A history of the United States, 2nd ed.Combined Volume, Pearson Education, 2010. Print

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