Tuberculosis (TB) progresses to be a leading public health issueglobally. The WHO declared the illness as a global emergency in 1993(Da Silva and Palomino 1417). TB arises from bacteria, which spreadfrom one individual to another via air. It affects lungs, though itcould also cause impairment to different body parts, like thekidneys, brain or spine. Controlling tuberculosis is impeded by therise of multidrug resistance, described as resistance to the twomajor drugs employed in treating the illness. The bacteria causing TBmight develop resistance to antimicrobial drugs, resulting inmultidrug-resistant TB. Drug-resistant TB cases are approximated toincrease yearly, highlighting the requirement for progressivewatchfulness to avoid the spread of the illness.
Importance of Antimicrobial Drugs
Antimicrobial is a phrase referring to drugs, which includeantifungals, antivirals, antibiotics and antiprotozoals. The drugsare employed basically in human, as well as veterinary medicine intreating, controlling and preventing bacterial illnesses.Additionally, some antimicrobial drugs are utilized for the objectiveof promoting growth and enhancement of feed effectiveness for theagri-food business. However, the drugs are most important to humanbecause they ensure that bacterial illnesses are controlled and donot cost the lives of those affected. The drugs work by eliminatingthe bacteria from the human body, in turn curing a bacterial illness.Most of the chemical groups of antimicrobial drugs applied in animalsalso apply to humans. Some antimicrobials are important in treatinggrave life-threatening human infections. Antimicrobial drugs havebeen used for years and have demonstrated their effectiveness incuring individuals that have serious bacterial infection. A specificillustration is the use of the drugs in treating TB. Individuals thathave TB are prescribed to take antimicrobial drugs for a specifiedperiod. This does not only save the life of the patient, ratherensures that the bacteria is eliminated from their body and cannotspread to other people. Because TB is spread by air, without drugs itwould be possible for a single person to infect so many people.
Why it is Important how Bacteria becomes Resistant to these Drugs
It is important to study how bacteria become resistant toantimicrobial drugs, as in drug resistant TB. Antimicrobialresistance happens when bacteria alter in ways that diminish theefficiency of drugs, or different agents aimed at curbing orpreventing infections (Da Silva and Palomino 1417). The bacteriasurvive and progress to increase resulting in more harm. When thedrugs are unable to cure the illness, because of the growth ofbacteria resistance, substitute antimicrobials might not be presentto treat illnesses arising from resistant bacteria. Studying drugresistance is necessary as it greatly contributes in the developmentof measures to restrict the growth of antimicrobial resistance. Inaddition, is to diminish the loss of efficiency of the life-savingdrugs. This implies the need for consideration on the manner thedrugs are employed in humans, and methods of facilitating theircautious application.
Studying bacteria resistance to drugs helps in tracking thealterations in microbial populace, allows on-time realization ofresistant strains, and helps in notifying of a possibility ofresistance. In order to produce other drugs, which will be able tofight the bacteria, it is important to understand the alterationsthat happen in microbial populace causing the resistance. Suchfirsthand information is effective, considering that TB spread fast.This means that in the event of a drug resistant case, which has notyet been identified, more people develop the illness. However, withinformation on how to test that the TB is drug resistance effectivemeasures are taken immediately to avoid the spread.
How the Drugs Attack Specific Parts of the Bacteria
Antimicrobial drugs work by inhibiting or killing the growth ofpredisposed bacteria. Cell wall synthesis inhibition is one waythrough which the drugs attack the bacteria (Todar 3). The drugs workthrough inhibiting the bacteria’s cell wall synthesis. The drugstarget bacterial cell wall pattern since animal cells lack cellwalls. The peptidoglycan layer is necessary for cell wallstructure veracity, because it is the outermost and basic part of thewall (Todar 3). The initial groups of antimicrobial drugs, whichimpede cell wall synthesis, are beta-lactam antibiotics,comprising all antibiotic agents with a beta-lactam core inthe molecular systems. The last process of synthesis of peptidoglycanis aided by penicillin-binding proteins, which differ in similarity.Bacteria frequently develop resistance to beta-lactam drugsvia synthesis of an enzyme, which interferes with the beta-lactamring (Todar 3). To do away with the resistance, beta-lactamdrugs are frequently prescribed with inhibitors, like clavulanicacid.
Another group of antimicrobial drugs, which impede cell wallproduction, are glycopeptides antibiotics. The drugs compriseof polycyclic peptides. The drugs work by stopping theproduction of cell walls in vulnerable microbes via stoppingpeptidoglycan synthesis (Todar 3). This involves binding aminoacids in the cell wall to avoid production of more units topeptidoglycan. Antimicrobial drugs inhibit a relevantmetabolic pathway, which is apparent in the bacterium. It is achievedvia the employment of viable chemical analogs applied in bacterialenzyme reaction.
Micro Bacteria TB
Micro bacteria Tuberculosis refers to a pathogenic species classifiedin Mycobacteriaceae (Da Silva and Palomino 1419). Theagent is attributed to majority of TB cases. The bacteria comprisesof an odd, wax coating within the cell surface making the cellsimpermeable to Gram stain. Micro bacteria TB have a high aerobic andneeds immense oxygen levels (Todar 1-4). It infects lungs, as it is amammalian respiratory structure pathogen. Research depicts that thediverse strains of the bacteria have moved, expanded and co-evolvedin the same way as human beings. M. tuberculosis’ evolution isAfrica (Todar 1-4). The bacteria depend on oxygen for growth anddivided in hours, which is a slow rate contrary to different bacteriathat divide in minutes. M. tuberculosis has the capability ofsurviving in dry conditions for weeks, which is associated with theodd cell wall and having lipids. In the lungs, alveolarmacrophages consume the bacteria, though are incapable ofdigesting and doing away with the bacterium (Todar 1-4).
Micro bacteria are categorized as acid-fast. This is because of theirimpermeability by specific dyes as well as stains (Todar 1-4).Acid-fast describes the outward property of specific bacteria,especially the resistance to acid decoloring through the stainingprocesses. The bacteria are hard to categorize via usualmicrobiological methods, unless stained via strong dyes. High mycolicacid in the cell walls explains the staining sequence of poorabsorption that follows increase retention. For instance, whenstained, acid-fast bacteria preserve dyes after heating and treatingvia acidic organic compounds. Ziehl-Neelsen stain is anillustration of acid-fast stain technique for micro bacteria (Todar1-4). When the technique is applied, in micro bacteria, the acid-fastbacilli looks pink when observed from a contrastingbackground. To detect the TB, excessive organisms are required invisualizing the bacilli.
Da Silva, Pedro and Palomino, Juan. Molecular basis and mechanisms ofdrug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: classical and newdrugs. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 66.7 (2011):1417-1430.
Todar, Kenneth. Antimicrobial agents in the treatment of infectiousdisease. Online Textbook of Bacteriology, (2008-2012): 3.Web. 4 Dec. 2014 http://textbookofbacteriology.net/antimicrobial_3.html
Todar, Kenneth. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Tuberculosis. OnlineTextbook of Bacteriology, (2008-2012): 1-4. Web. 4 Dec. 2014 http://textbookofbacteriology.net/tuberculosis.html