Case Study Report 8
Code+ Course Name
Casestudy I: Equity in Academia
TheSummary of the Case
MelindaWilkerson is a first year English Professor who is committed to herwork as a lecturer and a role model to her students. She hassubstantially amount of work to do and is hardly having time of herowner. She lecturers and offer guidance to the students throughout,for example in a particularly day, she serves the last student at 5:30 p.m., and is ready to carry some work home. She received arelatively low payment compared to her workload, but was at firstokay because her colleagues seem to have suffered in the same way. Melinda Wilkerson learns in the second semester that Agua her friendand colleague had fewer working hours and time to develop his careerand hangout with colleagues and friends. She also learnt that Aguahad his salary increased by $ 1, 000 because of the additionalresponsibility in the hiring and liberally committees of thedepartment. It is important to evaluate the options that MelindaWilkerson may have and whether she is satisfied with, and theexplanation of the behaviors of both the Melinda Wilkerson and Aguausing motivational theories.
MelindaWilkerson’s Options and Satisfaction Levels
MelindaWilkerson used to be satisfied with the way she was been treated andfelt motivated to carry on her duties with the expectation that thefuture would be better. However, it turn to be that her satisfactionlevel had declined significantly after learning the way theinstitution she worked for operated. This has driven MelindaWilkerson contemplate on actions take to address the situation she isat. She is contemplating to sue the employer for genderdiscrimination, leave the job and look for another employer to workfor, and join Agua’s style of rising and enjoying higher benefits.These options are seen to be futile. She does not have adequateevidence to demonstrate that she was discriminated on gender basesand hence could lose the case and the employment altogether (Miner,2005, 105).Currently, it is equally hard for her to get another employment dueto limited opportunities for young professors.
MelindaWilkerson is therefore left with one option among the ones she hadidentified. She can work out a way to befriend the departmental headsto have her course work hours reduced and where possible add heradditional responsibilities to increase her earnings and have herworkload reduced. The success of this option depends on how AliceBordy the departmental chair and other senior members would perceiveand react to her request. In case, this option fails, Wilkerson islikely to reduce her commitment to work, which will affect theservices she offered to the students. For example, she is likely toafford meeting her students in her office and outside the lectureroom, as well as, reducing her commitment to read students’journals and feedbacks. This will reduce her workload as she tries tobalance between the low payment and commitment to work.
TheBehaviors of Wilkerson and Agua and Motivation Theories
Thebehaviors of employees in an organization are influenced by a numberof factors that are also referred as motivator or de-motivators. Thebehaviors shown by the two young professors can be explained usingthree motivation theories including the expectation theory, equitytheory and social learning theory. Equitytheory of motivation, which implies that employees are motivated toperform their duties when it is perceive that they are treated fairly(Harold& Weihrich, 2010, 294).Equity can be perceived when an employee receives a far pay based ontheir workload and responsibilities. Equity can also be measured inrelation to how others are treated and rewarded. The equity theoryexplains why Wilkerson used to be satisfied when she and two of hercolleagues were equally treated despite the low payment theyreceived. On the other hand, when she learnt that Agua has had hisworkload reduced and receives additional $ 1, 000, she feeldisappointed because there is not equity on how they are treated, andhence de-motivated in her work.
Expectationtheory states that people are motivated to work due their expectedoutcomes. The satisfaction as a result of the realization of theexpectation energizes the employee to maintain their efforts andconsistence at work. Agua seem motivated to carry on with his dutiesbecause he is satisfied with the reward he receives and is alsohaving a positive trend in his career (DeCenzo,Robbins & Verhulst, 2013, 98).On the other hand, Wilkersonremained committed and motivated to her work until she realized thather efforts were not rewarded as she expected and does not see thesituation changing soon.
Lastly,social learning theory of motivation can be used to explain thebehaviors of the two young professors. This theory states thatindividuals are either motivated or de-motivated depending on theirinteraction with other in their context (Beck,2004, 56).It is clear that Agua achieved her motivation at the workplace afterinteracting with a senior member of their department who assisted himto have her course work reduced and had his salary increased by $ 1,000. On the other hand, Wilkerson learnt about how the systems workedin the institution through the interaction with Agua which eventuallyleft her de- motivated.
Casestudy 2: More Than a Paycheck
TheSummary of the Case
LemuelGreene was hired as a fresh with a master’s degree in Englishgraduate as a trainer for National Home Manufacturers. He was firstallocated to work at senior level to write and revise companybrochures, where he demonstrated Excellency before moving to theprestigious training department. In the department he specialized intraining the executive on writing, as well as, coaching his studentsto perfect their memos and letters. This meant that he received hugerewards in terms of salary and bonuses. Despite the huge earning,Greene is unsatisfied and unmotivated due to the boredom of workingover the same the thing. He proposes to his supervisor to beallocated some classes with the floor employees and relieve herexecutive training duties. This implies that, Greene had to receiveless payment, but that did not matter to him. He successfully trainedthe floor workers whose motivation improved significantly and thecompany realized reduced turnover among the floor employees.
Needtheories explaining why Lemuel Greene was unhappy despite his highincome
Motivationis considered as a force that drives people to behave in certain away. Motivation process starts with a need, as people tend to behavein a certain way in an attempt to satisfy their needs. The outcome ofthe selected behavior can lead to either rewards or punishment. Aneed comprises of anything an individual requires to be in asatisfactory mood. For example, all human being require primaryneeds, such as food, water, and shelter to sustain themselves. In ahigher level people would also require secondary needs that arepsychological in nature (Kinicki& Fugate, 2012,7).Depending on the level of the wants, an individual is motive ordriven to choose certain behaviors from among several choices tosatisfy the wants. Many employees go to work in order to earn incometo meet their economic needs. However, employees can also bemotivated by other factors apart from income, as demonstrated byLemuelGreene who is not satisfied with high check pay he receives onmonthly bases.
Twoneed theories Herzberg’sMotivation Theoryand Maslow`shierarchy of needs can be used to explain the reason why Greeneis unhappy despite the high income. Herzberg’sMotivation Theory is a two theory factor including Motivation factorsand hygiene factors. Motivation factors affect satisfaction and henceare considered to be motivators, while hygiene factors lead todissatisfaction in their absence (Ricky& Moorhead, 2014, 78).The high income offered to Greeneis a strong motivator and can lead to satisfaction, but the absenceof the preferred nature of work de- motivates him, and hence he isdissatisfied. The motivators such as income and recognition arepresent by the absence of the hygiene factors lower his satisfactionto the extent of letting go the high income to relocate to a workwith a lower income. Accordingto Maslow`shierarchy of needs,human needs are arranged into different levels of importance. Theneeds are arranged the basic level and rises the ladder and theirimportance reduces. In the ascending order, the needs arephysiological, security, belongingness, esteem and self-actualization(Moorhead& Griffin, 2013, 95).The physiological needs are the basic needs including food, shelter,clothing and sex. Greeneis not influenced by these needs since the huge income amount are notused to satisfy his needs. Security and sense of belonging are notthe driving needs to him. He already has career and job that offershim security of tenure and his is a respected and valued employee andhence her security, sense of belonging and esteem needs aresatisfied. On the other hand, he wanted to achieve on thing and thatis to train the floor employees and have their lives andopportunities improved (Kenrick,Neuberg, Griskevicius, Becker , & Schaller, 2010, 63-67).It does not matter that he had just graduated and got employed toencourage him to keep working on well-paying position. What mattersis to see himself doing something that he desires and achieve theintended objective (Frederick,Mausner & Barbara, 1993, 45).This is the reason why he is very happy to see how the lives of thefloor employees had changed because of his efforts.
Manypeople are working in wrong jobs because of the failure to recognizeone’s profession as well as challenges when it comes toopportunities. As a graduate in English, Greene is not satisfied withthe former position as an editor to company brochures and later toexecutive training. The satisfaction and the motivation afterdrifting into being a teacher as well as his demonstrated needsposses him as a talented professionals teacher. Teaching is thereforethe best profession for him despite him having not trained in theteaching profession.
Beck,R, 2004, Motivation:theories and principles.Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Education.
DeCenzo,D, A., Robbins, S, P, & Verhulst, S, 2013, Fundamentalsof human resource management.Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Farazmand,A, 2002, Modernorganizations: theory and practice.Westport, Conn, Praeger.
Frederick,H, Mausner, B, & Barbara B, S, 1993, Themotivation to work.New Brunswick, Transaction Publishers.
Harold,K, & Weihrich, H, 2010, Essentialsof management,New Delhi, McGraw-Hill.
Kenrick,D, T, Neuberg, S, L, Griskevicius, V, Becker, D, V, & Schaller,M, 2010, Goal-Driven Cognition and Functional Behavior TheFundamental-Motives Framework. CurrentDirections in Psychological Science, vol. 19, No 1,pp. 63-67.
Kinicki,A, & Fugate, M, 2012, Organizationalbehavior: key concepts, skills & best practices, New York, McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Miner,J, B, 2005, Essentialtheories of motivation and leadership.Armonk, NY [u.a.]: Sharpe.
Moorhead,G. & Griffin, R, W, 2013, Organizationalbehavior: managing people and organizations,Mason, OH: South-Western/Cengage Learning.
Ricky, W, & Moorhead, G, 2014, Organizationalbehavior,Mason, Ohio : South-Western.