China History



Duringthe early period of the Ming Dynasty, Chinese had good relations withthe non-Chinese people from other countries. A vast fleet was setfrom Liujia Harbour, which had the purpose of establishing relationsof the Chinese people with people from other countries. During thistime, the Chinese maintained good trade relations amid the Chineseand other people from foreign countries. Under the command of ZhengHe, there was a large fleet of 62 ships that were manned by a vastnumber of individuals (Ebrey,2010). On the ships, there were vast quantities of cargo, includingcotton goods, iron implements, porcelain, silk goods, and copperamongst other cargo. These commodities were used as trade goods amidthe Chinese and other foreign individuals. From 1405-1433, Zheng Hehad a period above 28 years, eight times being given the opportunityof acting as an envoy to nations lying to the West of China (Ebrey,2009). He had managed to make calls to over 30 countries, which meansthat Zheng had managed to bring good relations amid the Chinese andpeople from foreign countries.

Onevery voyage that Zheng made, he acted as the commercialrepresentative and envoy of the Ming court. Regardless of the nationthat Zheng visited, he called upon the ruler of the land andpresented the ruler with valuable gifts in token of the Chinesesincere desire of developing friendly associations. Therefore, duringthe period to the Ming, the Chinese and non-Chinese people had goodrelations, which led to the trade amid the Chinese and thenon-Chinese. Further, it was due to these relations that led to theChinese and non-Chinese respecting the customs of one another.

Theinteractions that the Chinese had with the non-Chinese populationslater worsened after the Ming Dynasty made various conflicts with theMongol. Some of the conflicts with the Mongols were successful, whileothers were not. For example, during the Tumu Crisis, ZhengtongEmperor became captured by the Mongols and became released after oneyear (Ebrey,2010). Under Yongle, the Chinese invaded northern Vietnam and carriedout a successful local rebellion against the Chinese occupiers. ThePortuguese encountered hostility upon their arrival however, theChinese still engaged in trade. The relations amid the Chinese andother populations changed through the involvement of the Chinese inconflicts. For example, the Chinese came under costly war, where itdefended Korea against Japan (Ebrey,2010). The goal of the Japanese was to invade affluent Ming China.Throughout the war, the Ming Chinese suffered vast casualties.Besides, as a result of the conflicts, the interactions amid theChinese and non-Chinese people had declined to a great deal.Therefore, the trade relations amid the Chinese and non-Chinesepeople declined as a result of conflicts that became experiencedlater during the Ming period.


Inthe early period of the Ming Dynasty, Chinese had good relations withthe non-Chinese people. This could be traced from the traderelationships that the Chinese and non-Chinese people had. TheChinese people had even gone to the extent of having a fleet of shipsthat could be used in reaching out to people from foreign countries.Zheng He had been given the opportunity of acting as an envoy tonations lying to the West of China, which gave the Chinese theopportunity of interacting with non-Chinese (Ebrey,2010). However, these relations came to change later emanating fromconflicts.


Ebrey,P. B. (2010).&nbspTheCambridge illustrated history of China.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ebrey,P. B. (2009).ChineseCivilization: A Sourcebook, 2nd Ed.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.