Cohort Follow-up Studies


CohortFollow-up Studies

Identifythe major causes of CVD, and analyze the key steps, including currentmedications, used to address the disease

Cardiovasculardisease can be used to refer to various blood vessel or heartproblems. The cause of cardiovascular disease usually variesdepending on the type. One of the major causes of the cardiovasculardisease is atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the buildup of fattyplaques in arteries. The buildup of plaque thickens and hardensartery walls that may inhibit the flow of blood through arteries toorgans and tissues (Katan et al, 1995). Atherosclerosis can be causedby lack of exercise, an unhealthy diet, smoking and being overweight.Arrhythma is a type of cardiovascular disease, which entails abnormalheart rhythms.

Thereare various drugs that can be used for treating cardiovasculardisease. One of the medication is ACE inhibitor, which dilatesarteries in order to lower the blood pressure making it easy for theheart to pump blood. The ACE inhibitors also work by blocking some ofthe detrimental actions of the endocrine system, which may occur withheart malfunction. Another medication for the cardiac disease entailsthe aldosterone inhibitor. This medication can be prescribed inreducing the swelling and water build-up that is caused by heartmalfunction. The aldosterone inhibitors can enhance heart failuresymptoms, which are still present although other treatments ae beingused. These inhibitors work through the blocking of adosterone in thebody, which causes fluid ad salt build-up. This medication can beused in treating patients having certain types of severe heartmalfunction. Another medication used for treating cardiac diseaseentail beta-blockers. These block the effects of the adrenaline,which enhance the ability of the heart to perform. The beta-blockersalso decrease the generation of damaging substances generated by thebody due to heart failure. Cholesterol-lowering drugs can also beused as a medication for the cardiovascular disease (Hu et al, 2002).These drugs help in building insulative nerves, new cells, andproducing hormones. In addition, digoxin can also be used since ithelps in proper working of a weakened heart. Digoxin may enhanceblood circulation.

Thefollowing steps can be considered in preventing the cardiovasculardisease controlling the portion that one eats, eating morevegetables and fruits, consuming whole grain, and limitingcholesterol and unhealthy fats. According to American HeartAssociation, less than 7% of the total daily calories is recommendedfor saturated fat, less than 1% of the total daily calories for trasfat and less than 300 mg per day for cholesterol in healthy adults,but less than 200 mg per day for adults having high levels of LDL.

Developat least five (5) leading questions that may be posed to your localhealth department in regard to mitigating the proliferation of thedisease. Provide a sound rationale for raising these questions.

Thefollowing questions can be posed to the local health department inmitigating the proliferation of the cardiovascular disease

Whatis the number of individuals having cardiovascular disease in thearea? The rationale for asking this question is to know thepopulation that is affected with the cardiovascular disease out ofthe entire population. This is critical in understanding theprevalence of the disease in the locality.

Whatare the steps that people are taking in preventing the cardiovasculardisease? This question can aid in knowing what initiatives thatpeople have taken in preventing the occurrence of the disease andwhether the means are justified.

Whatis the existing factor leading to people having cardiovasculardisease in the area? This question can aid in understanding themediaction that can be availed to the population in an attempt toprevent the cardiovascular disease.

Whatare the steps that can be taken in preventing the cardiovasculardisease? This question is important since it can help inunderstanding whether people know what they should do in order toprevent the cardiovascular disease.

Dopeople have enough information concerning the cardiovascular disease?This question is critical because it can help in providinginformation of cardiovascular disease to individuals in the locality.

Basedon the five (5) questions you developed in Question two (2), providea rudimentary protocol to disseminate this information to your localcommunity leaders.

Theinformation concerning the cardiovascular disease can be disseminatedto the local leaders through holding meetings with the local leaders,where the information concerning cardiovascular can be shared withthe local leaders. In this case, the local leaders can be gathered inone meeting and information shared. Another way of disseminatinginformation to the local leaders entails distributing publishedinformation to the local leaders through using local hospitals. Localhospital managers can be used in distributing the information to thelocal leaders. Apart from these two methods, the informationconcerning cardiovascular disease can be disseminated to the localleaders through sending emails to the local leaders. Emails of thelocal leaders can be collected, which can later be used in sendinginformation to them. Besides, the information can be placed on awebsite, where local leaders can log in to the website in order toaccess information concerning the cardiovascular disease.

Recommendsix (6) steps that may be given to your current or previous place ofemployment to prevent the proliferation of CVD. Provide support foryour recommendations.

Theproliferation of CVD can be prevented through the adoption of varioussteps. One of the steps that can be recommended entails controllingthe portion size that one eats. Most individuals have cardiovasculardisease because of not controlling the portions of food that theyeat. For example, most individuals that eat in hotels may end upconsuming more cholesterol, calories and fat because they do not takecontrol of what they eat. Eating until one feels stuffed may alsolead to a person consuming more calories than required. Individualsshould be take control of the portions that they consume in order toprevent the proliferation of the cardiovascular disease. Doingregular exercises can also be a recommendation in order to preventthe proliferation of the cardiovascular disease. Regular exerciseshelps in burning of carolies that may build up in the body leading tothe blockage of capillaries or veins, which may result to one havingthe cardiovascular disease. Regular exercises also help in improvingthe circulatin of blood, which is critical in preventing thecardiovascular disease. Therefore, through individuals having regularexercises, the proliferation of the cardiovascular disease can beprevented.

Anotherrecommendation for preventing the proliferation of the cardiovasculardisease entails consuming more fruits and vegetables. Fruits andvegetables are good sources of minerals and vitamins. Also, fruitsand vegetables are usually low in calories and have dietary fiber(Ness &amp Powles, 1997). Fruits and vegetables may help inpreventing the cardiovascular disease since one may consume lesshigh-fat foods like snacks, cheese and meat by eating more fruits andvegetables. People can be advised to to choose recipes, which havefruits or vegetables as the primary ingredient. This will help in theprevention of the proliferation of the disease.

Eatingwhole grains is another recommendation in preventing theproliferation of the disease. Whole grains are sources of fiber andother nutrients, which are critical in playing the role of regulatingblood pressure and maintaining heart health. Individuals can increasethe quantity of whole grains in their diet through makingsubstitutions for refined grain products. Therefore, including wholegrains in the diet can be recommended in preventing the proliferationof the cardiovascular disease. Another recommendation entailslimiting unhealthy cholesterol and fats. The accumulation ofcholesterol and fats is a leading factor in the cause of thecardiovascular disease. Limiting the amount of trans and saturatedfats that a person eats is a critical step in reducing the bloodcholesterol and lowering the risk of developing coronary arterydisease (Hu et al, 2002). A high amount of blood cholesterol canresult to a build up of plaques in the ateries, which can increasethe risk of stroke and heart attack. Thus, individuals can berecommended to consume a controlled amount of cholesterol in order toprevent the proliferation of the cardiovascular disease. In addition,people should be advised to consume foods with low amounts of sodium.Consuming a lot of sodium can lead to high blood pressure, which is arisk factor for CVD (He &amp MacGregor, 2002). Most of the sodiumcomes from processed foods. Thus, individuals should avoid such foodsin preventing the proliferation of CVD.


He,FJ &amp MacGregor, GA (2002). Effect of modest salt reduction onblood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Implicationsfor public health. JHum Hypertens.Vol. 16(11):761–770.

HuFB, Manson JE &amp Willett WC (2002). Types of dietary fat and riskof coronary heart disease: a critical review. JAm Coll Nutr.Vol. 20(1):5–19.

JacksonR, Lynch J &amp Harper S (2006). Preventing coronary heart disease.BMJ.Vol. 332(7542):617–618.

KatanMB, Zock PL &amp Mensink RP (1995). Trans fatty acids and theireffects on lipoproteins in humans. AnnRev Nutr.Vol. 15:473–493.

Ness,AR &amp Powles JW (1997). Fruit and vegetables, and cardiovasculardisease: a review. IntJ Epidemiol.Vol. 26(1):1–13.