Colonialism and Making of Modern India


Colonialismand Making of Modern India


Departmentof the Course


ThesisStatement: The Indian national congress never represented allsections in India, especially the Muslims.

Thispaper seeks to determine whether the Indian national congress was atrue representation of all sections in India. Indian nationalcongress (INC) is one of two main contemporary political parties inIndia1as well as the largest and oldest democratic-operating politicalparties in the world. Freedom fighter activists founded the Congressin the year 1885. The prime minister headed the congress that wasbased on social policy, which chiefly focused on the Gandhianprinciple of the Sarvodaya. The principle ensured the uplifting ofall sections in the Indian society.

Misrepresentationof Muslims

Initially,the congress aimed at representing all Indian sections however, withtime it failed to meet this objective. The Muslim community leaderslike other prominent educationalists such as Syed Ahmed Khannegatively looked upon the congress. Similarly, the orthodox Hinducommunity and their religious leaders were averse as they saw thecongress as in supportive of the western cultural invasion.¹ TheMuslim disenfranchisement tends to be a huge part of Indian history.The Hindus trained on self-defense with the aim of driving away theMuslims from India. Muslims continued facing misrepresentation. Forinstance, the top leadership showed communal biases against Muslims.Additionally, the congress seems to have failed in attracting thesupport of Muslims in the north India. They were always suspicious oforganizations and further decided to elect councils in 1892. Theyfeared that Muslims would outnumber and vote them out. Similarly, oneof congress delegates from Punjab, in the Lajpat Rai seems to arguethat the congress was not open and more of boldly base on onlyHindus. The congress viewed the Muslims as chimera and not fit in itsboard2.

Thecongress had Hindus as dominant in the council

TheIndian national congress had much representation of the Hindus otherthat the Muslims’. Hume had worked on efforts to rally the supportof Muslims in the council. The work of this activist was to ensurethat the Aligarh Muslim elites gain role in the council. However, theMuslim elites still felt that they were likely to lose due to Hindusdominance. Consequently, there was no special attempt made to wooMuslim operations after the 1887 to 1889. On contrary, the Humeestablished an effort that woos the Muslims support in the year 1887-88. Hume during this period facilitated the formula for the rejectionand resolution of the Muslims from opposition by the Hindus.

Thecongress failed to address basic issues like health

Thecongress failed to represent all sections of Indians (especially theMuslim) since it did not meet their basic needs and requirements.Such basic needs and requirements included lack of health care,poverty, social oppression and the prejudice of negligence by theBritish authority. No wonder, many scholars argue that the perceptionof the congress body was that of an elitist. Undeniably, it mainlyfeatured and focused on the wealthy and educated people’sinstitutions. 3

Thecongress adopted the anti-Muslim attitude

Thecongress party focuses on representing all Indian communitieshowever, as soon as national issues like the Hindu-Urdu controversyrose in 1905, the issue of separate electorates for the Muslimsbegan. The congress party more of adopted the anti-Muslim attitudes.In the year 1915, there was an establishment of the Hindu Sabah. Thegroup was established in almost every district in Punjab. During thisperiod, the Hindu community was in a period of communalism. The HinduMahasabha began the antagonizing of the Indian Muslims in many ways.Muslims had pressure to convert to Hinduism. They viewed theconversion of Muslims to Hinduism as a saving mission for the killingof cows from slaughter. The lingua franca was the officiallanguage of India4.Similarly, the Hindus were to undergo purification and withdraw fromthe Muslim festivals.


Basedon the aforementioned evidence it is justifiable to claim that themoderate congress was never a true representation of all sections inIndians. Muslim faced misrepresentation from the congress thatadopted anti-Muslim attitude, and failed to address their basic needslike health. Undeniably, the Hindus dominated the congress and inmost cases refused to give any preference to the Muslims. In fact,Muslims faced huge rejection from the Hindus. The Hindus thought thatif Muslims were given opportunity in the congress, then there was ahigh likelihood that they would overrule and vote them out


Bose,Sugata and Jalal, Ayesa. “Modern South Asia, History, Culture, andPolitical Economy. New York: Routledge, 2002.

CrispinBates. “Subalterns and the Raj: South Asia since 1600. London:Routledge, 2007.

Misra,Salil. &quotCommunal politics in UP, 1937-39.&quot (2014).

SumitSarkar. “Modern India, 1885-1947. Macmillan: New Delhi, 2002.

1 Misra, Salil. &quotCommunal Politics in UP, 1937-39.&quot (2014).

24 Crispin, Bates. “Subalterns and the Raj: South Asia since 1600. London: Routledge, 2007.

3² Bose, Sugata and Jalal, Ayesa. “Modern South Asia, History, Culture, and Political Economy. New York: Routledge, 2002

³Sumit, Sarkar. “Modern India, 1885-1947. Macmillan: New Delhi, 2002.

44Sumit Sarkar. “Modern India, 1885-1947. Macmillan: New Delhi, 2002