Comparison between India and China

COMPARISON BETWEEN INDIA AND CHINA 13

Comparisonbetween India and China

StudentName’s

Comparisonbetween India and China

Thepurpose of this paper is to compare two countries India and China.The comparison is made in terms of various concepts includinghistory, religion, political events, economic, tradition, and socialproblems. This is significant in helping the readers have a deeperunderstanding regarding the two countries, and how they compare toeach other.

History

Rankedamong the most heavily populated nations in the globe, India is hometo a huge range in culture, geography, ethnicity, and language. Thehistory of India starts with the origin of Indus Valley Civilizationin various regions including Harrapa and Mohenjo-Daro, andsubsequently, Aryans came forth (Stein, 2010). These are depicted asthe pre-Vedic phase and Vedic phase respectively. Hinduism came upduring the Vedic phase and it was the most common religious practice. During the reign of Ashoka in the 4th C BCE, Buddhism spread in mostregions of Asia. During the 18th C, Islam was introduced in India andit instituted itself as a political force during the 11th C. TheMaghal Empire succeeded the North Indian empires of Tughlaqs andLodhis among others. During the 18th C, the Mughal Empire started tofall apart and this paved way for regional states (Asher &ampTalbot, 2008). A nationalist movement surfaced in the early 20th Cled by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. India became a sovereign state in1947 (Stein, 2010). The country was colonized by the Great Britain.After independence, British India was divided into two: Pakistan andIndia. Jawaharlal Nehru became the initial prime minister ofsovereign India and ruled between 1947 and 1964. Since itindependence, India is believed as being a successful parliamentarydemocracy. The country is characterized by economic liberalization,civil liberties and independent of press. The nation’s maintaineddemocratic freedoms are exceptional amongst the globe’s newcountries.

TheRepublic of China was founded in 1912 (Eileen, 1997). Sun Yat-sen ofthe Nationalist party became the first provisional president.Nevertheless, Yuan Shikai was given the presidency after some time.In 1915 Shikai declared himself as the Chinese Emperor. He renouncedand reinstated the republic as a result of opponent and disapprovalfrom the Beiyang army. Major warfare came to an end in 1949. Thewarfare was in form of Chinese Civil War (Eileen, 1997). TheCommunist Party took reign of most parts of China. In October 1949,Mao Zedong, the chairman of the communist party declared thefoundation of People’s Republic of China (PRC) (Eileen, 1997).During the reign of Mao, the population grew from approximately 550million to more than 900 million. This was made possible by Mao’sstrategy of encouraging population growth. Nevertheless, from 1958 to1961, Great Leap Forward project by Mao left approximately 45 millionpeople dead as a result of starvation (Graham, 2003). A culturalrevolution was instigated in 1966 by Mao together with hissupporters. It resulted in social turmoil and political accusation.

In1971, the Republic of China was replaced by PRC in the United Nations(UN). After Mao died in the year 1976, Great Leap Forward became theleader of PRC and led the nation towards considerable economic andsocial reforms. Consequently, the Communist Party relaxed control bythe government towards individual lives, and besides the communitieswere separated in accordance with personal land leases (Graham,2003). These happenings marked the conversion of China from a plannedto a mixed economy (Eileen, 1997). Open market settings became moreand more prevalent. The present China’s constitution was adopted inDecember 1982 (Graham, 2003). During the 1990’s PRC was led bythree people who were Zhu Rongji, Li Peng, and Jiang Zemin. Theirleadership was characterized by huge economic growth rates with 11.2percent GDP. In 2001, China became a member of the World TradeOrganization. In 2000’s the country was led by Wen Jiabao and HuJintao who sustained it growth in economy. Xi Jinping became theCommunist Party General Secretary in 2012. His administration wascharacterized by key reforms in the economy, prison system andone-child policy.

Religion

InIndia, religion is characterized by a variety of religious practicesand beliefs. Religion plays a vital role in India’s culture. Boththe customs and the law establish religious tolerance and diversityin the country. The country is the source of the main religions inthe globe which include Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Jainism(Bose &amp Jalal, 2011). The census carried out in 2001 indicatedthat majority of Indians (80.5 percent) practice Hinduism, 13.4percent Islam, 2.3 percent Christianity, 1.9 percent Sikhism, 0.8percent Buddhism, and 0.4 percent Jainism (Echeverri-Gent, 2002).Other religions present in India include Judaism and Zoroastrianism.Social integration and assimilation of religions, as well as thepresence of native religions in India has resulted in the range ofreligious beliefs in modern India. Immigrants, tourists, as well astraders have contributed greatly in social integration. In the West,Indian diaspora has made popular most characteristics of Hinduphilosophy including Ayurvedic medicine, yoga, karma, meditation, anddivination (Echeverri-Gent, 2002). Various organizations encompassingBrahma Kumaris and Krishna movement have helped in spreadingspiritual practices and beliefs of India. India is the origin ofAhmadiyya Islam and the home of shrines and monuments of various keycelebrated saints of Sufism such as Nizamuddin Auliya and Qutb Minar(Stein, 2010). India is a secular state as declared by itsconstitution. Citizens have the fundamental right to worship freelyand spread their faith and religion.

Religionplays a vital role in Chinese culture. The constitution allowsChinese citizens to practice religion freely. A survey conducted in2006 and 2007 indicated that 46 % and 31.4% of Chinese citizens werereligious respectively (Graham, 2003). Throughout the decades, anumber of religious movements have influenced Chinese civilization.These include San Jiao, Confucianism, Tao, and Buddhism. Thesereligious practices have also shaped Chinese culture considerably.Research conducted by Horizon Research Consultancy Group in 2007showed that 11-16 percent of the Chinese population practicedBuddhism, 3-4 percent practiced Christianity, while 1 percentpracticed Islamic (Xie, 2006). Other ethnic religions encompassDongbaism among the Nakhi people.

Someof the religious practices between India and China are similar. Forinstance Buddhism is evident in both countries. Both nations are alsocharacterized by many religious practices and the citizens have thefreedom of worship.

PoliticEvents

Indiais a parliamentary state. It also has a multi-party system with anumber of acknowledged national parties which encompass the BharatiyaJanata Party (BJP) and the Indian National Congress (Echeverri-Gent,2002). Over forty regional parties are also present in the country.In the Indian politics, the BJP is considered conservative(centre-right) while the Congress is liberal (centre-left)(Echeverri-Gent, 2002). The existent of powerful parties haveresulted in the development of multi-party coalitions with partiessharing the political stage. The BJP formed a coalition in 1998, theNational Democratic Alliance (NDA), under the leadership of AtalBihari Vajpayee. It was the initial non-Congress to win and completea term of five years. During the 2004 general elections, the Congressformed the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) and it was supported byvarious communist parties as well as MPs who were against the BJP.During the 2009 elections, UPA took reign for a second term, and thistime, it had more numbers and no support was necessitated from otherparties. Manmohan Singh was chosen as the prime minister in the sameyear. BJP won in 2014 general elections with a majority.

Chinais a socialist state that explicitly supports communism. Thegovernment is portrayed as socialist, communist, corporatist andtotalitarian (Jacques, 2009). It restricts freedom of press, theright of bearing children, freedom of assembly, freedom of religion,freedom of forming social organizations, as well as freedom ofaccessing the Internet (Jacques, 2009). China is believed to have a“socialist market economy” and a “people’s democraticdictatorship”. China is under the ruling of the Communist Party ofChina (CPC). The authority of CPC is protected by the constitution.The electoral system of the country is hierarchical in nature. Chinahas a decentralized political system. Leaders in the provinces have aconsiderable amount of sovereignty. Democratic parties exist in Chinaand they play a part in the National People`s Congress and theChinese People`s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) (Jacques,2009).

Thereare notable differences between China and India in terms of politicalevents. Unlike China where the constitution denies individuals theirfundamental rights, Indians enjoy their fundamental rights as allowedby the constitution. In India there are various political partiessuch as BJP and the Congress which take part in the generalelections unlike in China whereby only one political party (CPC)take part in elections and it is protected by the constitution.

Economic

Thenominal economy of India is valued at US$2.047 trillion as stated bythe International Monetary Fund (IMF) (Alamgir, 2008). Indian economyis ranked 11th in terms of exchange rates and 3rd in terms ofpurchasing power parity at US$7.277 trillion. India is among the mostrapidly growing economies in the globe. In 2011-2012, the growth ratein Gross Domestic Product (GDP) stood at 6.1 percent as compared tothe 5.8 percent in the previous two consecutive decades. In terms ofnominal GDP per capital, India ranks position 140th. The country hasa free market economic system which stresses on direct investmentinflows and foreign trade. It has a capitalist economic model and isa member of World Trade Organization (WTO). The country has a largelabour force of 486.6 million as per 2011 statistics. The wage rateper hour has also doubled in this 21st C. India GDP is made up ofvarious sectors in the economy including the service sector (55.6percent), industrial sector (23.3 percent), and agricultural sector(18.1 percent) (Alamgir, 2008). Key industries encompasstelecommunications, pharmaceuticals, textiles, food processing,cement mining, chemicals, petroleum, biotechnology, and machineryamong others. Key agricultural products encompass cotton, rice,potatoes, oilseed, tea, sugarcane, and jute. India is a key exporterof textile goods, engineering products, petroleum, and software. Itis also a major importer of fertilizer, machinery, crude oil, andgems. Engineering products and petrochemical formed a large part ofexports in 2001 to 2011 which rose from 14 percent to 42 percent.While poverty has decreased with approximately 431 million personsleaving the poverty line, the trend is projected to go on by 2030when the middle classes will reach roughly 580 million. Thetelecommunication industry is the most rapidly growing in the globe,evidenced by the additional 227 million users in 2010-2011. India isthe third biggest smartphone market in the world following China andthe United States. The automotive industry in India is the secondrapidly growing in the globe. In 2009-2010, exports amplified by 36percent and domestic sales by 26 percent. The Information Technologyindustry engaged 2.8 million experts, and it contributed 7.5 percentof GDP. The consumer market and the pharmaceutical industry are alsocontributing greatly in the country’s economy. By 2020, thepharmaceutical market is projected to reach 48.5 billion US dollars.

Accordingto International Monetary Fund (IMF), China’s nominal GDP totaledto about US$9.3253 trillion in 2013. The country has the secondbiggest economy measured by nominal GDP. In the same year, purchasingpower parity was US$13.395 trillion making it second in the globe. Interms of GDP per capital China ranks 90th with US$6,747 as per theIMF rankings. Since the 1978 economic liberalization, the country isone of the most speedily growing economies. Most of this growthdepends greatly on export and investments. The GDP growth rate from2001 to 2010 was 10.5 percent as indicated by IMF. From 2007 to 2011,the rate of economic growth was equal to that of G7 nations pooledtogether. China is the world leader in manufacturing and this hasbeen made possible by good infrastructure, low labour expenses, aswell as high productivity. Nevertheless, the economy of China dependsgreatly on energy which is inefficient (Jacques, 2009). In 2010, itwas the globe’s major energy consumer and it depends on coal. In2013, it was the main importer of oil followed by the United States.Chinese environment has been damaged by high industrialization andeconomic growth which has resulted in slow economic growth (Jacques,2009). Weakening of Chinese exports on the global market has alsobeen evidenced.

Tradition

Languageis one of the aspects of Indian tradition. With seven territories andtwenty eight states, India is characterized by approximately 22official languages. It has two national languages: English and Hindi(Stein, 2010). Dravidian and Aryan are the two Indian families inwhich the majority of the languages belong to. Indian cuisine pridesitself on European, Turkish, and Arab influences. The country isrecognized for its moderate employment of spices and herbs on itshuge range of dishes. There are also a variety of cooking styleswhich differ from one territory to the other. Most of the food isconsumed using fingers. There exist an assortment of bread whichencompasses leavened, bhatoora, naan, and fluffy flatbread servedtogether with meals. The film industry known as Bollywood is wellacknowledged in India (Stein, 2010). It has contributed greatly inarts in form of movies which are characterized by complex dancing andsinging. The tradition of Indian dance has been in existent for over2000 years. Some of the key dance traditions encompass Odissi,Bharata Natyam, Mohiniattam, Kathak, and Manipuri among others(Stein, 2010). In terms of clothing, multicolored silk saris are thetraditional clothes worn by Indian women. Men on the other hand weardhoti and Kurta. Sherwani is worn by men during special occasions.

Chinais also characterized by various traditions. To start with, variouslanguages are spoken throughout the republic. There are also variouslanguage families encompassing Altaic, Indo-European, Austro-Asiatic,Sino-Tibetan, and Austronesian (Meng, 2011). This is unlike Indiawhich is made of two language families: Dravidian and Aryan. Chinesewriting systems are also exceptional. The main religions in China areBuddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism (Meng, 2011). India also practicesBuddhism, but the largest percent of the Indians practice Hinduism.China has an assorted cuisine and the employment of spices in foodsis common. Food is generally eaten using sticks.

SocialProblems

Indiais characterized by a number of social problems. To start with, thecountry suffers from extensive poverty. As stated by the World Bank,41.6 percent of Indians leave under global poverty line of 1.25dollar per day. Other estimates indicate that 33 percent of the worldpoorest live in India. India is overpopulated with a populationestimate of 1.27 billion. It is the second most populated country inthe globe. Poor sanitation is another social problem evident inIndia. According to UNICEF estimates, poor hygiene and sanitation isassociated with loss of lives. In 2006, approximately 450,000 peopledied from diarrhea. Most affected were children aged below five years(88 percent). The cognitive development of children is affected bypoor sanitation according to UNICEF. Corruption is prevalent inIndia. Corruption is practiced in form of exchange control, bribes,embezzlement, and tax evasion. TransparencyInternational`s Corruption Perceptions Index ranksIndia position 95 in terms of corruption (Alamgir, 2008). Since Indiagained independence, unlawful capital inflows are estimated to beUS$462 billion. Religious violence is also common. Although thecountry is a secular state as per the constitution, extensiveviolence still exists. Religious violence takes the form politicsfounded on religion and communal tensions. In the current decades,Evidence regarding attack on Christians exists (Stein, 2010). Indiais characterized by high rates of illiteracy. Women and those livingin the rural areas are the most affected. More than 50 percent ofwomen are uneducated.

Similarto India, China is characterized by a number of social problems. Tostart with China is overpopulated. Although various program such asthe onechild policy havebeen put in place to control population increase, they have hadminimal impacts (Graham, 2003). Cases related to HIV/AIDs have alsoincreased steadily. China is also characterized by an agingpopulation (Jacques, 2009). Another issue is wealth gap which hasbeen caused by discrimination, unequal opportunities, as well aspolitical instability. Rural-urban inequality is also evident, wherethe rural people are the poorest while those who reside in urbanareas are the richest. This is common although the Hukou (householdregistration) type of social development policy has been put in place(Graham, 2003). High unemployment rates are evident in the mostinterior parts of china. This is despite the fact that some citiesand coastal areas are experiencing shortage of workforce due to thespeedy economic growth. For instance, Guangdong province requiresapproximately one million personnel to cover unemployment shortage.China also experiences high rates of crimes and corruption similar toIndia. They are in form of scams, organized crimes, counterfeiting,and white collar crime. Corruption is closely tied to organizedcrime.

Conclusion

Thepaper has endeavored at providing a comparison between India andChina in terms of various aspects including history, religion,economy, political aspects, tradition, and social problems.Certainly, there are notable similarities and differences between thetwo countries. While the history of India and China differ in termsof religion, both countries are characterized by many religiouspractices, and Buddhism is evident in both. Besides, citizens havethe freedom of worship. The economic of the India and China is amongthe most rapidly growing economies in the globe. In terms ofpolitical events, India has various political parties which take partin the general elections unlike in China whereby only one politicalparty (CPC) take part in elections and it is protected by theconstitution. Lastly, both countries experiences major socialproblems such as overpopulation, corruption and unemployment.

References

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Bose,S. &amp Jalal, A. (2011). ModernSouth Asia: History, culture, political Economy(3rd ed.) New York: Routledge.

Echeverri-Gent,J. (2002). Politicsin India`s decentred polity.London: M. E. Sharpe.

EileenT. (1997). China:Understanding its past.Volume 1. University of Hawaii Press.

GrahamH. (2003). ModernChina: A guide to a century of change.Harvard: Harvard University Press.

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