Ethics in Profit and Non-Profit Organizations

ETHICS IN PROFIT AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 7

Ethicsin Profit and Non-Profit Organizations

Ethicsin Profit and Non-Profit Organizations

Argandona,A (2007). Ethical management Systems for Not-for-profitorganizations. Workingpaper, No. 693.

Thispaper undertakes an analysis of the “Ethics NGO management System”standards, which had been published by a private Spanish company thatstrives to create standards and certifications for ethical behavior.It acknowledges in spite of the fact that NGOs are excellentinstruments for encouraging varied causes, it is imperative that theyadhere to the strict ethical standards often defined in voluntarystandards and codes. The paper analysis these standards against otherscholarly works pertaining to standards to come up with numerousweaknesses and strengths. They underline that the disclosure conceptamongst NGO was only applied amongst volunteers, employees anddonors. This limitation reduced accountability particularly in NGOsas they would not be required to be accountable to otherstakeholders. This paper would come in handy in forming the basis forthe crafting on ethical policies for organizations.

Rhode,D.L., &amp Packel, A.K. (2009). Ethics and nonprofits. StanfordSocial Innovation Review,7(3), 28-35.

Thispaper aimed at exploring the factors influencing moral conduct andthe ethical issues arising particularly in charitable organizations,as well as the most appropriate techniques for promoting ethicalbehavior in organizations. In this case, the authors undertook areview of literature on these issues and determines that a largenumber of American workplaces do not promote the culture ofintegrity. Similarly, lack of integrity may be blamed on conflict ofinterest, investment policies, low compensation in not-for-profitorganizations and ethical climate. This paper would be crucial todetermining the aspects that are detrimental to the efficacy ofnot-for-profit organizations and determining how to enhance it.

Richards,C.H (2006). Private and Public Sector Ethics. Journalof Business and Economics Research,Vol. 4 No. 5

Richardsbases this paper on the argument that variations in the private andpublic-sector organizations may result in varying ethical judgments,principles and perceptions. The study detailed in the paper makes useof previous methodology, theory and research in developing andtesting hypothesis pertaining to ethical judgments, as well asprinciples of public and private-sector employees. The researchstated that private sector employees had a higher likelihood oftolerating questionable or unethical business practices compared totheir public sector counterparts simply because they reaped morebenefits and were closer to the perpetrators than the victims of thesame. This paper would explain why private sectors may be moreunethical than their public counterparts, as well as the measuresthat should be taken to enhance ethics in the organizations.

Robinson,D.A &amp Yeh, K.S (2007). Managing Ethical Dilemmas in Non-ProfitOrganizations. Faculty of Business Publications

Thispaper examines research that explores the varied types of ethicaldilemmas that are experienced in thirty-seven non-profitorganizations. The authors acknowledge non-profit managers have tograpple with dilemmas that go beyond choosing between right andwrong. The results of the studies showed that there exists no clearway for prioritizing responsibility, as well as no earlier provisionsthat can be emulated. The paper makes use of three cases derived fromnon-profit organizations in Taiwan and Australia so as to introduceBESS and Seven Cs. BESS or Business Ethics Synergy Start enablesorganizations to make a concise depiction and resolution of adilemma. This paper would be crucial in the making of crucialgoverning policies in non-profit organizations.

Coskum,N (2007). Importance of Ethical Public Relations in Non-ProfitOrganizations. Journalof International Development,17 (2). Pp 18-139

Thispaper aims at enhancing the comprehension of the importance of publicrelations’ activities in non-profit organizations. It lay emphasison the fact that public relations activities have an impact on thefunctionality of non-profit organizations in modern markets. Thestudy detailed in the paper uses qualitative and quantitativeresearch methods in the collection and analysis of data and thecreation of a holistic comprehension of the topic. The researchunderlined that ethical public relations would have a bearing ontheir reputation. Unfortunately, not many have standards detailinghow this should be done.

Strickland,R.A. and Vaughan, S.K. (2008). The Hierarchy of Ethical Values inNonprofit Organizations: A Framework for an Ethical, Self-ActualizedOrganizational Culture. Public Integrity 10(3): 233-251

Thispaper primarily aims at underlining the connection between Maslow’stheory and ethical culture in organizations. Indeed, the authors usethe hierarchy of needs or values to offer an explanation regardingthe manner in which nonprofit organizations establish ethicalcultures. The authors, however, customize the Maslow’s theory tocome up with values that the organization may need to achieve so asto be considered ethical including integrity, accountability,reciprocity, respect and financial competence. They underline thefact that these would be achieved successively and simultaneously andthat ethical values form the basis for the achievement of integrity,which does not revolve around incorruptibility, but total commitmentto high behavior standards.

Laratta,R (2010). Ethical Climate in NonProfit and Government Sectors: Acomparative Study Between Japan and U.K. InternationalJournal of Sociology and Social Policy,Vol. 28 No. 1/2, pp. 46-58.

Thispaper details a study aimed at investigating the ethical climatespertaining to government and nonprofit organizations in UK and Japanso as to determine the similarities and differences, drivers of thedifferences and the implications for the two sectors in the twocountries. A qualitative research was done involving more than 2000respondents in the two sectors in both countries. This paperunderlined the fact that the nonprofit organizations can be crucialpartners to governments since they have similar ethical values andare less likely to behave opportunistically. The study detailed inthe paper would offer crucial insights that enable governmentpolicymakers in government to enhance their comprehension of theimplications of utilizing nonprofit partners in service delivery.

Agarwal,J &amp Malloy, D.C (2006). Factorsinfluencing ethical climate in a nonprofit organisation: an empiricalinvestigation .InternationalJournal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing.Vol 8 Issue 3

Thispaper examines the dimensions of ethical work climate with regards tononprofit organizations and extends the study through investigatingvaried factors influencing perception or views of ethical workclimate in nonprofit organizations. Using quantitative studies, theresults of the study demonstrated distinctive findings pertaining tofactors influencing the perception of ethical climate n nonprofitorganizations. It demonstrated that aspects such as code of ethics,peer pressure, size of organization and length of service do notinfluence ethical perceptions. This study would go a long way inproviding a platform on which organizations can determine whataspects to put in place so as to cultivate an ethical reputation.

Harris,J.D., Sapienza, H.J &amp Bowie, N.E (2011).Ethics andEntrepreneurship.Journal of Ethics and EntrepreneurshipVol. 1, No. 1

Thisarticle undertakes a brief review of the varied research studies thathave been done pertaining to entrepreneurship and ethics so as toallow for the integration of the fundamental themes that emerge andoffer suggestions pertaining to future research. It explores themanner in which entrepreneurs make ethical decisions and the dilemmasthat emanate from entrepreneurship. On the same note, it explores thedevelopment of organizational ethics in new ventures, as well as theimpact of technological innovations on entrepreneurship ethics. Thispaper would form incredible basis for determining the balance betweenethics and entrepreneurship so as to allow for profit organizationsto maximize their profits without necessarily compromising on theirethics.

Clegg,S., Kornberger, M &amp Rhodes, K (2007). Business Ethics asPractice. British Journal of Management. Vol. 18, 107-122

Theauthors use the article to develop and conceptualize business ethicsas a practice. It is based on the notion that ethics or ethicalbehavior displayed by organizations in practice is forged via acontinuous process of contestation and debate with regard to moralchoices. This basis is used to examine the ethics in relation to thesubjective, ambiguous and unpredictable contexts pertaining tomanagerial action. On the same note, the authors use prior literaryworks to examine the manner in which discursively constitutedpractices would relate to the managerial subjectivity, while alsoexamine the likelihood that managers can be moral agents. Theyconclude that it is difficult for ethics to be encapsulated in listsof rules and regulations guiding actions, in which case there existsno best technique for good ethics to be guaranteed via legislation,judgment and prescription.