Evidence Based Nursing Practice


EvidenceBased Nursing Practice



Researchand Scholarship for Evidence-based Practice (NURS-4001-14)

December31, 2014

EvidenceBased Nursing Practice

Accordingto Schmidtand Brown (2012), nursingpractices today are characterized by frequent development andimprovements in terms of how treatment is administered. Thetraditional practices that involve treatment administration withoutevidence has been overturned today. According to (Hairr,Salisbury, Johannsson and Redfern-Vance ( 2014)to come up with the best practices of nursing with evidences,quantitative and qualitative research must be done to identify newknowledge and skills of treatment and provision of healthcareservices to the patients.

Thispaper will identify some of the research studies and the relateddesigns used in carrying out evidence based nursing practiceresearch. The purpose of this paper is to review a quantitative andqualitative nursing research study.

Overviewof Quantitative Article


Thisquantitative and correlational article by (Hairr, et al., 2014)intends to answer the question on what is the relationship betweennurse retention, nurse staffing, and job satisfaction within theenvironment of an acute care hospital. According to the research,findings nurse retention and job satisfaction was inversely related.This, according to the authors was attributable to the fact thatstressful conditions that nurses endure because of too much workmakes them want to leave their current jobs and that is why therelationship was inversely related.

Thisstudy aims at determining whether there is a relationship between anindependent variable and dependent variable like the nurse staffingand job satisfaction. It applies empirical research andgeneralization of insights on population. The research questions thatmay arise from this study (Hairr, et al., 2014) are such asdoes a relationship exist between job satisfaction and nurse staffingor is there a relationship between nurse retention and jobsatisfaction?

Thedependent variables are job satisfaction and retention while theindependent variable is nurse staffing (Hairr,et al., 2014).


Theresearch design used to carry out Hairr, et al. (2014) quantitativeresearch is the correlation research design. It involves a systematicinvestigation of the relationship and the association amongvariables. It provides the nature of relationships among thevariables like whether positively related or inversely related.Specifically, it provides the direction, magnitude and the strengthof the relationship among the variables. The results obtained fromthis kind of study as postulated in the book by (Schmelzer,2004) helpsin formulating the hypothesis for the study to be tested inexperiments.

TheSample Size and Representativeness

Thesample presents the population (Hairr,et al., 2014) thatconsists of 70 respondents with 59 females and 11 males. The medianage of the sample was 36-45 years. Most of them had an associatedegree in nursing (38 of the respondents). This sample isrepresentative of the population because in the first place it isquite a large sample. In addition, the selection comprised of nurseswith more than six months of experience. This indicates that theirfeedback would be more accurate and thus credible compared to thosewith less experience. Additionally, the sample comprises both gendersthus the issue of gender bias would not arise as a challenge.

DataAnalysis and Results

Datapresentation and analysis can be done with different tools andmethods. In Hairr, et al. (2014) data was analyzed using SPSS version20. The authors obtained descriptive statistics for demographic andNWI-R COP subscale variables (ibid). The NWI-R COP data were testedfor normality and frequencies and percentages obtained. After thiscorrelation analysis for each research question performed.

Becauseordinal scales were used for the study and data was found to beabnormally distributed, nonparametric statistical analysis was deemedmore appropriate. Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient Analysiswas performed to determine whether the predictive variables (jobsatisfaction, nurse staffing) were related to the criterion variables(nurse retention, job satisfaction) respectively.

Interms of relationship between nurse staffing and job satisfaction theoverall mean patient assignment was 5.6, the range for allrespondents was 1:1 to 1:10. This can be assumed for both Magnet andnon-Magnet hospitals (Trinkoff, et al., 2010). In general theresearchers found a weak positive relationship between COP and nursestaffing of 0.33 with a p=0.01 from a two tailed test meaning thatthere is a weak relationship between workload and job satisfaction.With respect to the relationship between job satisfaction and nurseretention there was a moderately strong negative relationship of-0.43with p=0.01, two tailed test meaning that as job dissatisfactionincreases the more likelihood of nurses leaving.

TheStrengths and Weaknesses of the Study


Throughresearch findings from (Hairr,et al., 2014), thestudy results and findings can be generalized to the population ofinterest Samples can be selected such as of individual and society toensure that the results are representative. In addition the use ofthe Spearman’s Rank Correlation coefficient Analysis helps toeliminate estimation errors and this helps use to accept the resultsand use them to improve nursing practices. In addition such resultscan help in determining mandatory nurse patient staffing requirements(Tevington, 2011).


Therecan be failure to involve the required controls such as the observersaccording to the book by (Schmelzer,2004) tomake sure that there is no any element of intervention that couldlead to poor results. In addition, failure of respondents to answerthe respective questions accurately may lead to poor results. Thequantitative research study has a weakness and this is approved inthe article by (Schmelzer,2004) statingthat the selection of sample size and the sampling units isjudgmental and lack objectivity. The data analysis and conclusionsare also subject to biasness.

QualitativeArticle Analysis


Theresearch question for this article (Hamilton, Corlett, &amp Dowling,2014) is “what is the adult trained perioperative nurses’practice of family centered care?” This is why the study wanted touse adult-trained nurses involved in the practice so that they wouldcompare the results with studies carried out before but those thatnever used adult-trained nurses.


Thiswas a qualitative study. The specific study approach was ahermeneutic phenomenological approach. The study involved an in-depthanalysis of interview data from the study participants.

SampleSize and Representativeness

Thestudy participants were six adult-trained perioperative nurses. Thisis a very small sample to be representative of the population.However, it is a good starting point.

Resultsof Data Analysis Procedures

Theauthors conducted a correlation analysis of the data collected andgenerated a composite description of perioperative nurses’ practiceof FCC. The results showed that families are not adequately preparedfor FCC. In addition, the results showed that family non-preparednessfor FCC caused feelings of inadequacy and upset for nurses.

of Strengths and Weaknesses

Thesample size of six nurses seems to be small compared to thepopulation it is important to note that this kind of study where“Adult-trained perioperative nurses” were used had not been donebefore. Thus the results of the study, which indicate that theparticipants support the involvement of family members in FCCpractice, they also found out that the process is stressful anddifficult. The study was based on Colaizzi’s seven-step frameworkand thus the results are very useful in nursing practice. I wouldagree that although the study suffers from a small sample size, thestudy is credible enough to be used in nursing practice. This isbecause a small sample is easier to monitor and evaluate thetrustworthiness, transferability, and credibility of theparticipants.

However,such a small sample can lead to wrongful deductions because there isa huge possibility that if the sample size was increased there is thepossibility of obtaining varied results.


Thequalitative data has a great strength that is detailed out in thearticle by (Hamilton, Corlett, &ampDowling, 2014), that data collected and findings made fromthe study leads to development of new concepts, theories andassumptions which form the basis of the quantitative research.Research studies on nursing can be both qualitative and quantitativein nature. The research studies that are qualitative are concernedwith giving concepts and insights to the about the treatmenttechniques to be adopted while the quantitative ones are concernedwith giving the general insights about the treatments of patientsusing facts and findings.


Hairr,D.C., Salisbury, H., Johannsson, M. &amp Redfern-Vance, N.(2014).Nurse staffing and the relationship to job satisfaction andretention. NursingEconomics,32(3), 142-147.&nbsp

Hamilton,G., Corlett, J. &amp Dowling, M. (2014).Adult-trained perioperativenurses’ practice of family-centered care. BritishJournal of Nursing,23(9), 477-482. Doi: 10.12968/bjon.2014.23.9.477

Schmelzer,M. (2000). Understanding the research methodology: Should we trustthe researchers` conclusions?&nbspGastroenterologyNursing, 23(6),269–274.

Schmelzer,M. (2004). Understanding statistics: What is alpha(á)?&nbspGastroenterologyNursing, 27(6),292–293.

Schmidt,N. A., &amp Brown, J. M. (2012).&nbspEvidence-basedpractice for nurses: Appraisal and application of research.Sudbury, Mass: Jones &amp Bartlett Learning.

Tevington,P. (2011). Professional issues. Mandatory nurse-patient ratios.MEDSURGNursing, 20(5), 265–268.

Trinkoff,A., Johantgen, M., Storr C., Han, K., Liang Y., Gurses A., &ampHopkinson S. (2010). Comparison of working conditions among nursesin Magnet and non-Magnet hospitals. Journalof Nursing Adminstration,40(7/8), 309–315.