Evolutionary Theory

EvolutionaryTheory

InstitutionAffiliation

ThesisStatement:The evolution theory uses natural selection in addressing the rise ofdiversity.

Theevolutionary theoryis one of thefieldsin thestudyof biologicalanthropology.Thetheoryfocuseson theevolutionespecially in theformationof diversity.Evolutionrefersto a changein inheritedfeaturesof abiologicalpopulationupon successivegenerations.Additionally, theevolutionary processusuallyaimsat givingriseto diversityat eachlevel ofa biologicalorganizationthat includespecies,moleculessuchas proteinsandDNA, andindividualorganisms.

EvolutionaryTheory

CharlesDarwin was thefirstpersonto formulatea scientificargumentfortheevolutiontheory.Darwin useda naturalselectionin theformulation of thistheory.Theevolutionby naturalselectionrefersto a processinferredfrom thethree factsabout population.Thefirstone arguesthatmoreoffspringtend to beproducedthan theytend to survive.Secondly,thetraitstendto varyamong individualsandthusleadingto differentratesof reproductionandsurvival(Scott-Phillips,Dickins &amp West, 2011).Consequently, thetraitsdifferencesare heritable. Darwin positsthatwhena memberof thepopulationdiesthenprogeny of parentsreplacethem. Theyfurtheradaptto survivaltactics andreproducein an environmentat which thenaturalselectionseemsto takeplace.Theprocessof naturalselectionis themaincauseof adaptationknownbutit is not theonlyknowncauseof evolution.Mutationandthegeneticdriftare someof thenon-adaptive causesof evolution(Naveh,2013).

Darwin’stheoryevolutiongainedmuchrelevancein the20th century.Theimportanceof thenaturalselectionwaswidelyacceptedin thebiologybranches.Thetheoriesrenderedotherevolutionnotionsobsoletehowever,scientistsare stillstudyingthevariousaspectsof evolutionwith an aim of testing various hypothesesthat have been put across. Similarly,thesescientistsaim at featuringattheconstructionof scientifictheoriesby useof observational theories.Forinstance,theyperformexperimentsat bothlaboratoryandfield(Larsen, 2012).Biologists moreofagreethatthedescentin modificationof themostreliableandestablishedfactsin science.Thediscoveriesin theevolutionary biologyhavesignificantrolesin thetraditionalbranchesof biologyaswell asotheracademicdisciplines’(Naveh,2013).

AccordingtoScott-Phillips et al. (2011),biologists oftenargue that evolutionrepresent the real world while creationists oftenseeitas a theory.Therefore,manyscholars,scientists,andbiologists workon examining on boththefactsandtheoriesin order to establish thetruth.Themostbasicfactin thefieldof scienceendsto be a bruteandsensoryfact.Theyworkon thesharedperceptions,which theworldagrees.Scientistsworkon buildingfactsandconceptsin theincreasingcomplexity of sensoryfacts.Similarly,scientistusuallycallsa solidagreementon thestatementof complexity as a fact.

Caughley,Gunn &amp Ralls (2010)supportthatbiologists are moreof correctwhentheysaythatan evolutionis a fact.Similarly,in thecontextof theDarwin’s workpiece,The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, evolutionsis a presume of a factthattendsto blockfullviewof majortheoriesandotherhundredsof thesub-theories in thestudyof evolution.

Evolutionarytheoryrefersto theinterdisciplinary studyof theevolutionof humanbehaviorandhumanphysiology.Theevolutionary anthropologybaseson thesocialscienceandnaturalscience.AccordingtoNaveh (2013),theevolutionary anthropologyentailstheculturalandbiologicalevolutionof humanspresentandpast.Thefieldbaseson thescientificapproach.Forinstance,itbringstogetherfieldssuchas behavioral ecology,archeology, primatology, genetics,andpsychology.Itis moreof an interdisciplinary fieldanddynamicfield.Thefieldworkson evidencesof understandingthehumanexperienceon thepastandpresent.Scholarsrevealthatthestudyof biologicalevolutionworkson concernof theevolutionof thehumanform.

Caughley,et al., (2010),in thejournalConservationbiology in theory and practice,addresseson thefateof Darwinism. TheauthorarguesthattheDarwinism is nolonger a generalframeworkfortheevolutionary theory.Consequently, theauthorviewsthatthegenetically Darwinism seemsnot possibleto accommodatethedevelopmentrolein muchevolutionary theory.Similarly,an argumentariseson whetherthenaturalselectionis a creativefactor(Larsen, 2012).

ThejournalreviewsandcriticsDarwinism as an evolutionary synthesis.There is alsoa frequentassertionthatDarwinism is a pejorativetermthatthecreationists andtheproponentsinventas IDin theformof derision.TheDarwin lobbiesalwaysassertthatthere are noweaknessesin theDarwinian Theory (Scott-Phillipset al., 2011).However,theauthorarguesthatthemodernsynthesisof thetheoryneverprovidedatrueaccountof howthemajorformsof lifetendto haveevolved.Moreover,theauthorbelievesthatthere will be a newandgeneraltheoryon theconceptual frameworkof theevolutionin theforthcoming.Thenewtheorywill makethecurrentformulations of theevolutiontheoryto fail.Nevertheless,otherbiologists seeitas merespeculations(Caughleyet al., 2010).

References

Caughley,G., Gunn, A., &amp Ralls, K. (2010). Conservationbiology in theory and practice(Vol. 459). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Science.

Larsen,C.S. (2012). Essentials of Physical Anthropology: Discovering Ourorigins (2nd ed). New York: W. W. Norton &amp Company

Naveh,S. (2013). InPursuit of Military Excellence: The evolution of operational theory. London: Routledge.

Scott-Phillips,T. C., Dickins, T. E., &amp West, S. A. (2011). Evolutionary theoryand the ultimate– proximate distinction in the human behavioralsciences. Perspectiveson Psychological Science,6(1),38-47.