Expanded Comparison Matrix Lawrence T

College of Doctoral Studies Expanded Comparison Matrix

Expanded Comparison Matrix

Lawrence T

Dr. Lonny

Expanded Comparison Matrix

Article 1

Article 2

Article 3


Transformational Leadership in the Public Sector: Does Structure Matter?

Wright &amp Pandey

The Effect Of Transactional and Transformational Leadership Styles on the Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction of Customer Contact Personnel

Emery &amp Barker

Processes through which transformational leaders affect employee psychological health

Megan Walsh, Kathryne Dupré, Kara A. Arnold

Persistent GCU library link




Purpose of the study

What is the author’s rationale for selecting this topic? Does he build a strong case?

To test existing paradigms regarding transformational leadership. The authors suggest that public organizations are not as bureaucratic as stereotypically believed and that the performance measures in place support higher levels of transformational leadership in these organizations than might be expected based on their hierarchical structures.

The author builds a plausible argument based on the need for followers to be flexible in order for a leader to motivate them beyond satisfactory performance. In addition, the structure and controls in place for public organizations might impede the effectiveness of a transformational leader.

To analyze and depict the prevalence of transactional leadership at work place in organizations. The author postulates that organizations which employ transactional leadership tend to have a lower performance in terms of customer satisfaction as compared to those that adopt transformational forms of leadership.

Transactional leaders are task- and outcome-oriented. Especially effective under strict time and resource constraints and in highly-specified projects, this approach adheres to the status quo and employs a form of management that pays close attention to how employees perform their tasks.

Transformational leadership focuses on increasing employee motivation and engagement and attempts to link employees` sense of self with organizational values.

To test the major processes through which transformational leaders influence employee psychological health.

The authors found out that transformational leaders influence employee with empowerment, conservation of resources and levels of psychological which is a positive related to employee health with in the organizations.

The authors also notes that a transformational leader behaves in ways that enable followers to gain both personal and social resources in different sectors in the organization

Research Question(s)

What question(s) does the author present?

The more hierarchical an organization’s authority structure, the lower the reported practice of transformational leadership behaviors.

The weaker the lateral/upward communication in an organization, the lower the reported practice of transformational leadership behaviors.

The greater organizational formalization (measured as [3a] procurement red tape and [3b] human resource red tape), the lower the reported practice of

Transformational leadership behaviors.

The more an organization’s structure impedes the establishment of extrinsic

Reward-performance contingencies (here measured as human resource red tape), the higher the reported practice of transformational leadership behaviors.

The use of organizational performance measures will decrease the reported

Transformational leadership behaviors.

Customer motivation is the main push factor in companies this means that organizations tend to strife to ensure that they attain customer satisfaction at all times.

Leadership is the main driving force in coming up with effective decisions in line with customer satisfaction.

The commitment of the organization is found to reflect the employee’s involvement and identification within a particular organization, which influences fair customer satisfaction.

Organizational performance is measured on a given matrix that depicts to analyze both employee involvement and management involvement. In such situations both parties work in unison to come up with quality services intended to achieve customer satisfaction in the market.

Is leadership directly related to employee performance and motivation?

Is work output directly tied to the kind of management perceived in an organization?

The higher performance likely makes employees feel more confident in their roles that can contribute to the self-esteem component of empowerment.

The transform- national leadership has involvement itself to influence other outcomes given the evidence on empowerment’s positive effects transformational leadership’s conceptual and empirical link- age.

Transformational leaders are agents of change this means that they easily allow employees to adopt new working procedures depending on the kind of tasks at hand. It is such values that tend to improve the working status of the employees.

Recognition is a very important virtue in organizations, this is because employees feel appreciated and valued when their abilities are recognized. This means that they can easily adopt more creativity towards achieving organizational goals.

Literature Review

How is this organized? What are the main themes found in the review? Who are the main authors used?

It is organized by explaining definitions and then moving to related theories.

The Literature Review begins with an explanation of transformation leadership and then explains the conditions that need to exist before transformational leadership can be successful. The review moves to organizational structure and the ways in which the structure can support or inhibit transformational styles including formalization of processes and procedures, inadequate performance measurement and reward processes, and a hierarchical chain of command.

They referenced Bass &amp Riggio in the beginning, followed by multiple citations of work by Shamir combined with different people: Howell, or in some cases House &amp Arthur.

The literature review commences by analyzing transactional leadership and comparing it to transformational leadership.

The author tries to superimpose both forms of leadership in a typical organization set up.

Different theories touching on both forms of leadership are then compared and gauged upon employee performance and expected outcome at any given time.

Both forms of leadership (transactional and transformational) are given scenarios where they can be applied better since each form suits a given circumstance better. For instance, transactional is deemed to work in highly significant projects while transformational leadership is better applied in a market scenario where change is important.

The literature review is organized into the following sections

Definition of the transformational leadership, in this section the author tries to define transformational leadership and relating it to an organization’s performance.

The second section is the role of transformation leadership in luring employees to work better and lead to higher performance in an organization. The author points out those employees tend to relate more with leaders who give them a chance to formulate their ideas at work place.

The last section is the comparison of expected out from transformational leadership and other formats of leadership in an organization.

The author depicts that transformational leadership is applicable in organizations that would want to achieve diversification. This is backed up by multiple references from accredited sources.

Sample Population(s)

What group(s) is/are being studied?

1,322 high-level public administrators in municipalities exceeding 50,000 residents.

7 branch managers and 308 tellers from regional banking organizations. 47 store managers and 188 checkers from one national food chain.

254 usable surveys were received. 58% of the participants were male, and the average age of participants was 40.3 years (range 18-72). The average length of time worked at current job was 7.61 years (range less than one year-36 year). All participants were employed in various sectors.


What are the limitations of the study? Why can it only encompass so much?

One limitation might be that the average age of the respondents was 50 years.

Others include:

Mostly Caucasian

Many jurisdictions had only 3 respondents, which might not be representative of the opinions of other direct reports.

A reduced number of questions were used to identify transformational leadership to keep the survey short. Possibly causing false identification of transformational leaders.

Transformational leadership might not be the result of less hierarchical organizations, it might cause them. There is not a way to prove which came first.

The results might be indicative only of the 205 local governments’s studied, not other public organizations.

The use of fewer male branch managers as participants as compared to female participants may jeopardize the results needed due to gender imbalance.

Using four tellers at each bank and four checkout personnel from each store may not represent the opinions of other employees in the bank.

In addition, selecting the participants in a random method may decrease the probability of responses given since it may result in selection of unwilling participant.

The main limitations suggest that transformational leaders assist followers to attain valued resources that subsequently impact their psychological health nor specifically,

Another limitation that works with all data was collected from the same source, so it is possible that common method bias influenced our results.

In addition, transformational leaders respond to the followers’ resource gain by enhancing a sense of less fair procedures within the organization using tools.

Results/ Conclusions

What did the author find through the study? Was the original question answered?

The authors research supported the idea that not all governmental organizational are bureaucratic and that organizational red tape or rules do not necessarily limit the use of transformational leadership.

Performance measures do not limit the ability to use transformational leadership.

That structure always inhibits transformational leadership was not supported by the data. The question is answered as being untrue.

Upward communication supported transformational leadership. Lower use of it affected whether it was effective.

Red tape did not appear to have a net effect on the use of transformational leadership.

Performance measures appear to increase the use of transformational leadership.

So all questions were either supported, or unsupported by the data collected.

The author supports the idea that both forms of eldership can be applied in an organization, however, it is paramount for management to assess the kind of situation a given leadership format ought to be applied.

The author points out that the best leadership technique in ensuring motivation among employees is that of transformational approach. This is because it tends to appreciate the values and roles of employees in an organization. Some employees would want to be recognized for their achievements and success at workplace.

Transactional leaders reward and punish in traditional ways according to organizational standards transformational leaders attempt to achieve positive results from employees by keeping them invested in projects, leading to an internal, high-order reward system.

Transactional leaders appeal to the self-interest of employees who seek out rewards for themselves, in contrast to transformational leaders, who appeal to group interests and notions of organizational success.

The results indicate that employees’ perceptions of justice of the organization and psychological empowerment mediate the positive relationship between transformational leadership and psychological health. This study supports the notion that transformational leadership influences individuals’ perceptions of organizations, as well as individuals’ perceptions of themselves, which ultimately has implications for individual well-being.

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