Final Exam-Sport Nutrition


1. In assessing the nutrient needs of a young female distance runner,you establish

the following key pieces of information: body mass 55 kg estimatedbody fat content (by

BIA) 11% weight has been stable for 10 weeks typical weekly runningdistance (140

km) estimated (from 3 day dietary recall) daily energy intake (1400kcal). How do you

interpret these data.

Meeting the nutrition needs for an athlete are crucial so as toenhance perfect exercises and workouts. In this case, the youngfemale runner has maintained a constant boy weight for almost twoweeks meaning that she has been taking a diet with adequate energydespite being involved in intense weekly running for 140km. If herdaily energy intake has been 1400kcal for ten weeks, it means thatshe has been consuming 20kcal daily. Her body is fit and the dietaryrecall works out perfectly for her as she has managed to maintain thebody weight for seventy days. This together with a balanced diet ofproteins, glucose and vitamins would facilitate her normal exercisesand weekly running without any loss of body mass. According to Ruud(1996), athletes must meet nutrient needs for optimal performance.Their nutritional needs are similar to non athletes with theexception of calories and fluids argues Ruud (1996).


Ruud, J.(1996). Nutrition and the female Athlete, CRC press

2. a) Undertake a search of the peer-reviewed scientific literatureto identify papers

published since 2010 that contribute to our understanding of THE ROLEOF NO (Nitric


Nitric Oxide has in the last decades led a revolution in physiologyand pharmacology research. According to Bescos (2012), the labilemolecule plays critical roles in the body such as regulating bloodflow, vasodilation, platelet functions and mitochondrial respiration.Due to its many functions, nitric oxide has gained popularity amongstathletes and body builders who use it as a secret weapon to restoretheir vitality and allow them to work out faster and better. NOsupplements support blood flow, cardiac performance (Sonja et al.2014) and oxygen into the skeletal muscle (Tengan et al.2012). Sue etal (2014) argues that NO facilitates the removal of induced lacticacid build up during exercise and reduces recovery time as well asfatigue. Dietary supplements are being marketed to help athleteselevate blood flow to the exercising muscles and enhancing metabolicresponse especially by athletes (Thiago et al. 2012).

b) From the papers you identify, select 5 to collate into a referencelist that

would allow a colleague to easily locate the papers. You may use anyrecognised format

for the reference list.


Bescos, R. Sureda, A., Tur, J., &amp Pons, A. (2012). The effect ofnitric oxide related supplements on human performance, Sportsmedicine, vol. 42,Issue.2p.99 from, 4911- [email protected]&ampvid=1&amphid=112&ampbdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpd mUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ==#db=s3h&ampAN=73983898

Smiljić,S., Nestorović, V., &amp Savić, S. (2014). Modulatory role ofnitric oxide in cardiac performance.&nbspMedicinski Pregled /Medical Review,&nbsp67(9/10), 345-352. doi:10.2298/MPNS1410345S from [email protected]&ampvid=1&amphid=112

Su, S. Panmanee, W. Hassett,D. (2014) Catalase (kata)plays a role inprotection against anaerobic nitric oxide in pseudomonas aeruginosa.Plos One, 9(3), 1-18 from 4593-9b3b- [email protected]&ampvid=1&amphid=112&ampbdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUm c2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ==#db=a9h&ampAN=95436808

Tengan, C. Rodrigues,G. &amp Godinho, R.(2012). “Nitric Oxide inskeletal muscle:Role on mitochondrial biogenesis and function.“International journal of molecular sciences,13(12), 17from eb7f-4454-b0ee- [email protected]&amphid=112&ampbdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcG U9c2l0ZQ==#db=a9h&ampAN=84465470

Thiago, S., Carlos A, Jr., Vânia M. Flosi P.,Joab T S., Cláudia deM M., Yagesh N. B., and

Paulo S. C. (2012). “Acute L-arginine supplementation increasesmuscle blood volume but not strength performance,”Appl.Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 37: 115–126 from 300d-40a1-b69d-7ba71f1dc489%40sessionmgr111&ampvid=23&amphid=119

c) In no more than 300 words describe the search strategy that youused to carry out

part a). Make sure you include the keywords used for searching.

The search strategy used to carry out part a) was library resources.Library resource strategy is one of the most ancient yet still usefulresearch strategies for learners. It entails looking for materialsfrom book chapters and retrieving useful information from the booksor journals o come up with relevant data for the research or issueyou are investigating. A library is a wealthy resource with all sortsof information ranging from books, encyclopedias, dictionaries,journals, peer-reviewed articles, news articles, newspapers andonline services that include using the e-campus through your logindetails. While researching on this topic, the instructions areclearly stated as using peer reviewed journals research on the roleof Nitric Oxide in promoting improved performance.

To get peer reviewed journals you use other search engines like theonline libraries. For example, I also used online libraries andsearched for peer-reviewed journals from the latest years forcredible sources of data on the topic. Through typing the keywords,‘the role of NO’ a variety of topics appear giving you an optionto choose the topic that suites the topic of sport science. Each ofthe peer reviewed journals contributes to the topic and have beenuseful in coming up with the role of Nitric oxide as a performanceenhancer. There are many advantages of using online libraries as asearch engine while researching on sports nutrition. The peerreviewed journals appear from different dates giving you reliabledata from the latest to the most current journal online.

3. Describe a potential role for protein in supporting the immunefunction of athletes.

Proteins are the basis of the body structure as they form importantstructures like muscles and bones. For athletes, the formation ofthese structures is crucial due to the activities they do. Athletesgenerally use their muscles and bone movement for instance, during arace or a jog. Some of them get involved in intense exercises thusrequire more amounts of proteins. If the body does not have enoughproteins, there is a high chance of the athlete breaking down.Proteins are bodybuilding and thus a core part of the food chain foran athlete argues Brown (2001). Proteins also provide energy for thebody and form important body parts like cell membranes, enzymes andparts of blood (Clark, 2012). The building blocks of proteins arereferred to as amino acids with twenty of the most common amino acidsfound in food. Nine of these are indispensable while the other elevenare produced in the body from food components.

The role of proteins amongst athletes has been a debatable issue forsome time. Initially athletes were not recommended to ingest morethan the RDA for protein but recently research has shown thatathletes who engage in intense training require about two times theRDA of protein in their diet (1.5-2.0g/kg/d (Judy, 2007)). This helpsmaintain body balance and boosts their immune functions. Failure toingest the right amount of protein, a negative nitrogen balance canbe maintained by the athlete. This imbalance poses as a threat to theathlete and can increase slow recovery and protein catabolism. Withtime, this leads to training intolerance and muscle wasting.According to Mauro (2007), athletes who are involved in generalfitness programs require 08-1.0g/kg/d of protein while older onesrequire 1.0-1.2g/kg/d to help prevent sarcopenia (Krieder et al2010). Moderate intense training athletes consume 1-1.5 while thoseinvolved in high volume intense training consume 1.5-2.0g/kg/d. Thisprotein need is equivalent to 3-11 servings of chicken/fish daily for50-150kg athletes. Smaller athletes can ingest that amount of proteinin the normal diet while larger athletes have difficulty consumingthe dietary needs in their normal diet.

According to Kreider et al (2010), certain populations of athletesare susceptible to protein malnutrition. They include the runners,wrestlers, dancers, gymnasts, boxers, cyclists, swimmers andtriathletes. These athletes need to be careful while consumingproteins so as not to ingest less sufficient proportions of proteinin their diet. A sufficient amount of quality in protein is vital inorder to maintain nitrogen balance of 1.5-2.0g/kg/day assert Karinch(2002). Athletes should make an attempt to obtain proteins from wholefoods but also supplemental protein is recommended as a convenientmethod of ingesting high quality dietary protein. Proteins differ andIt should be noted that not all are the same. They differ based ontheir source the protein was obtained from, depending on the aminoacid profile of the protein and methods of processing. Thedifferences consequently influence the availability of amino acidsand peptides which possess biological activities such asimmunoglobulins, lactalbumin, lactoglubin, glycomacropeptides andlactoferrin (Kreider et al.2010).

Considering the rate of digestion and absorption of proteins is veryimportant as different types of proteins such as casein are digestedat different rates affecting the whole body’s catabolism andanabolism. Athletes should be careful when consuming proteins toensure they take high quality of proteins in the diet. Light skinlesschicken, egg white, fish and skim milk are good examples of low fat,high quality protein. High quality nutritional supplements ofproteins are found in foods such as casein, colostrums, milk and eggprotein. Not all athletes require supplements but sport nutritionistsat times recommend some athletes to supplement their diet

with protein so as to meet the dietary protein required. This alsoprovides essential amino acids after exercising in order to optimizeprotein synthesis (Dunford &amp Doyle, 2014).

The timing of taking proteins during the time encompassing exercisesessions is beneficial to the athlete argues Benardot. It helps theathlete get greater gains in fat free mass and improves theirrecovery. Protein residues such as amino acids are very important forathletes due to the intense exercises they are involved. Increasedrates of protein synthesis and decreased protein degradation canpossibly aid in recovery from exercise (Donatelli, 2007). Athletesrequire more dietary protein to maximize their response to enduranceand exercise training.


Benardot, D.(ND). Advanced sports nutrition-2ndedition, Human kinetics

Brown, S. P. (2001).&nbspIntroductionto exercise science.Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams &amp Wilkins.

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Clark, N. (2014).&nbspNancy Clark`s sports nutrition guidebook.

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Donatelli, R. (2007).&nbspSports-specific rehabilitation. St.Louis, Mo: Churchill Livingstone.

Dunford, M. &amp Doyle, J. (2014). Nutrition for sport andexercise, Cengage learning, medical

Judy, A. (2007). Sports Nutrition: Fats and Proteins, CRCpress, health and fitness

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Karinch, M. (2002).&nbspDiets designed for athletes.Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

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Kreider, R. Wilborn, C. Taylor, L. Antony, A. (2010). “ISSNexercise &amp sport nutrition review: research &amprecommendations,” Journal of the International Society of SportsNutrition 2, 77 from

Lonnie, M&amp Jose, A.(2012). Dietary protein and resistanceexercise, CRC Press, health and fitness

4. You are at a training camp with your national swimming team, whenone of the

coaches tells you that one of her swimmers is taking the followingsupplements: humic

acid, chromium picolinate, and androstat poppers. Assuming that youhave got good

internet access at the camp, prepare a very short report (not morethan 100 words on

each) for the coach saying whether each of these has any value to aswimmer, whether it

might be harmful and whether it is permitted by WADA doping rules.

I am writing this report with regard to the information about one ofthe swimmers taking humic acid, chromium picolinate and androstatpoppers supplements. On researching about these substances, Idiscovered that they have no value to the swimmer. They encouragedishonest results through enhancing performance and tarnish theoriginal talent of the swimmers. Using these supplements is notpermitted by the WADA doping rules and conflicts with the naturaltalent assert Roy (1998). Humic acid is an ionic molecule that makesall nutrients more absorbable and permeable through increasing theabsorption of oxygen (Wendong et al. 2014). Chromium picolinate onthe other hand is a supplement that plays the role of maintainingproper carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Studies reveal that chromiumpicolinate supplementation during training improves fat loss andgains lean body mass (Kreider et al, 2010). It thus is not arecommended as a means of improving body composition for swimmers orathletes. Androstat poppers are also supplements that enhance hormonetestosterone production leading to androgenic properties likeincreased energy, strength and muscle development (Cupp. 2003). Theyalso decrease recovery and work out time for athletes. All thissupplements will be harmful to the swimmers and affect their physicaland physiological strength eventually (Herbert &amp Bar, 2007).


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Cupp, M. J., &amp Tracy, T. S. (2003).&nbspDietary supplements:Toxicology and clinical pharmacology. Totowa, N.J: Humana Press.

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Hebestreit, H., &amp Bar-Or, O. (2007).&nbspThe Young Athlete:Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine. Chichester: John Wiley &ampSons.

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Kreider, R. Wilborn, C. Taylor, L. Antony, A. (2010). “ISSNexercise &amp sport nutrition review: research &amprecommendations,” Journal of the International Society of SportsNutrition 2, 77 from

Roy BD. &amp Tarnopolsky MA(1998). “Influence of differing macronutrient intakeson muscle glycogen resynthesis after resistance exercise.” JournalofApplied Physiology,84, 890-96

Wendong, W. Wen, W. Qinghai, F. Yabo, W. Zixia, Q. &amp Xiaochang,W. (2014). “Effects of UV radiation on humic acid coagulationcharacteristics in drinking water treatment processes,” Chemicalengineering journal, 256137-143

5. The coach of a Tour de France cycling team tells you that he hasheard that low

carbohydrate diets may benefit athletes. Is this true? What evidencewould you

assemble to justify your answer? Your answer should not be longerthan 500 words,

including specific references where appropriate.

Low carbohydrate diets have side effects such as rapid weight lossinitially. For athletes, it is imperative to stay strong and fitespecially as an athlete. I therefore tend to differ with the coachof a tour de France who heard that low carbohydrates may benefitathletes. Exercising or working out following low carbohydrate dietscan cause nausea, fatigue, headaches, poor concentration andhalitosis (Fact sheet, 2009). These effects are because of inadequatecarbohydrate intake and the induction of ketosis. Ketosis is also aterm referred to explain the rapid breakdown of body fat. Accordingto Thompson (2006), prolonged low carbohydrate intake has increasedrisks such as cardiovascular diseases and nutrient deficiency. Forathletes, low carbohydrate intake means restricted intake of wholegrain foods, starchy foods and foods with optimal nutrition andhealth. Low carbohydrate intake for athletes reduces high intensityof exercises and the capacity to endure workoutsargues Montfort and William (2007). As a result, the qualityof training is compromised. Inadequate carbohydrate intake can alsolead to decreased immune functions, increased risks of infection anddelayed recovery when athletes are hurt argues Brown (2001). Adequatecarbohydrates on the other hand maintain the body and increase leanmass which is crucial for muscle strength (Volek et al, 2011).


Brown, S. P. (2001).&nbspIntroductionto exercise science.Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams &amp Wilkin

Factsheet (2009). Low carb diets for weight loss in Athletes,Sports dietitians, Australia from 20Diets.pdf

Montfort-Steiger V, Williams CA(2007). “Carbohydrate intake considerations for young athletes.”&nbspJSports Sci Med.20076:343-352.

Thompson J,. (2006).&nbspNutrition:An Applied Approach.&nbspSanFrancisco: Benjamin Cummings

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Volek, J., Phinney, S. D., Kossoff, E., Eberstein, J. A., &ampMoore, J. (2011).&nbspThe art and science of low carbohydrateliving: An expert guide to making the life-saving benefits of carbohydrate restriction sustainable and enjoyable. Lexington,Ky: Beyond Obesity.

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