Fluoridation of Water

Fluoridationof Water

Fluoridationof Water

Fluorideisa compound of ion which contains a single element that is soreactive known as fluorine. Many natural rocks contain fluorine.Water fluoridation has become more prevalent in the recent past. Thisis for the fact that many people not only in the United States butglobally as well have been taught to believe that fluoride is a safesubstance that is used for purifying water. Is this really so? Thissection of this research will answer this question. But first, whatis water fluoridation? Water fluoridation is the supplementation ofthe fluoride chemical to community water provisions with an aim ofcavity reduction. Nearly 2/3 of American community water isfluoridated. This is according to Centers for Disease Control andPrevention (CDC) [CITATION CDC14 l 1033 ].This figure is much bigger for the people who get water frommunicipal water systems[ CITATION Dou13 l 1033 ].According to the CDC, most of the fluoride that is added to communitywater supplies emanates from a chemical known as silicon fluorides.This chemical is used to manufacture fertilizers that containphosphate[ CITATION CDC14 l 1033 ].Basically, fluoride is placed in municipal water systems to purifywater and reduce cavitiesas well as prevent tooth decay. This substance works by binding tothe enamel of the tooth that basically consists of hydroxyl apatite[ CITATION Sci11 l 1033 ].Fluoridereplaces hydroxyl molecule on the hydroxyl apatite which makes teethmore resistant to bacteria that emanates from acid attack.

Therehave been too much controversies surrounding water fluoridation sinceit was introduced. Some argue that water that contains fluoride leadsto more health hazards such as bone fractures, dental fluorosis[ CITATION CDC14 l 1033 ]andimpaired brain development while others say that it safe to usefluoride water since it causes no harm. TheAmerican Medical Association in conjunction with the American DentalAssociation have sanctioned water fluoridation. These studiesindicate that low levels of fluoride causes fractures of bones,disorders of thyroid as well as under-developed brain tissues.

Fluoridecan either be beneficial or not. The risks of fluoride water emanateswhen the concentration of this element is higher than expected. Thelevel at which fluoride should be added into water is about 1 ppm. Ifthe level exceeds that, then it becomes a health problem since itaccumulates in the body for a long time and can cause skeletalfluorosis as well as teeth decay. The most obvious risk of excessfluoride is severe dental fluorosis. This is according to theCenters for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) [ CITATION CDC14 l 1033 ].

Thereare various types of fluorides. These are sodium fluoride (NaF),Stannous fluoride (SnF2), acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF),Calcium fluoride, hydrofluorosilic acid, naturally occurring fluorideand many others. Fluoride Ion has an affinity for calcium – sonaturally occurring fluoride is calcium fluoride – it is bound tocalcium. Very high calcium fluoride content is not good for youeither, hence the peoplein India with skeletal fluorosis. This isbecause the fluoride that these people use to add in water suppliesis hydrofluorosilic acid. Hydrofluorosilic acid is a discardedby-product of industries that manufacture aluminum and chemicalfertilizers. It is actually toxic that is why most Indians haveskeletal fluorosis.

EbolaVirus

EbolaVirus disease was previously referred to as Ebola hemorrhagic fever.This is a deadly virus that originated from animals in the parts ofAfrica. This virus first appeared in 1976-this was in Nzara, Sudanand Yambuku in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In theDemocratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the virus emanated around RiverEbola and that is why it got its name [CITATION who14 l 1033 ].The virus has been known to be in existence for the last nearly40 years.

Therehas been a recent outbreak of this Virus in West Africa and parts ofthe United States. The first recent case, according to WHO wasnotified in March 2014. This outbreak has been the most complex Ebolaoutbreak since the virus was first discovered. Many people have losttheir lives to this virus and many cases have been reported duringthis current outbreak as compared to the previous outbreaks [CITATION who14 l 1033 ].The virus is more prevalent in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Guineaand Senegal. There has been two deaths in the United States sincethis new outbreak. The most affected country is Liberia [ CITATION Nig14 l 1033 ].Thoughmore concentrated in parts of Africa, history shows that cases ofinfection have popped up in other countries as well, predominantly inthe Philippines.

TheEbola Virus poses a huge risk not only to the United States but othercountries as well. For instance, a doctor from the United States whohad gone to Liberia to assist in containing the disease passed on.This is such a huge risk in sense that the virus could really spreadto other parts of the world since it is transmitted through bodytouch and coming into contact with fluids of an infected person oranimal [CITATION who14 l 1033 ]. It is as well shown that even thepeople who have recovered from this fatal virus disease can stilltransmit the virus to other people. There have been cases where menhave transmitted the virus through semen for up to a week [ CITATION Nig14 l 1033 ].This is according to World Health Organization (WHO).

Thisfatal virus is common to the fruit bats. This is according to WorldHealth Organization (WHO). There are other animals that are infectedwith the Ebola Virus. These animals are monkeys, forest animals,nonhuman primates as well as porcupines [CITATION who14 l 1033 ].

Othercountries of the world have a social responsibility in assisting tocontain this fatal virus. If anyone has travelled to any of the WestAfrican Countries, they should be isolated and screened thoroughly tomake sure that they have not been infected with this deadly virus. Inas much as other countries are assisting in containing this virus,the proper measures should be put in place to make sure that thevirus is not spread further to other parts of the world. According toCDC, isolation as well as confinement of infected persons seems to bethe only way forward in avoiding the spread of this virus [CITATION who14 l 1033 ].

Toprotect from this virus, WHO advises that any meat gotten from theanimals that seem to be more prone with the virus should bethoroughly cooked before eating. CDC has as well listed downcountries that have had prevalence Ebola virus outbreak and it has aswell warned people from travelling to the most affected countries inAfrica [CITATION who14 l 1033 ]. One can as well protect themselvesfrom this virus by wearing face masks, gown and gloves and avoidcoming into contact with an infected person or animal[ CITATION Nig14 l 1033 ].

WorksCited

American, S. (2011, April 14). A Scientific American Corporation. Retrieved from A Scientific American Corporation Web site: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=second-thoughts-on-fluoride

CDC. (2014, February 16). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from A CDC Corporation web site: http://www.cdc.gov.fluoridation/factsheets/engineering/shortages_fag.htm

Main, D. (2013, August 3). Live Science. Retrieved from A Live Science Corporation Web site: www.livescience.com

Tan, N. (2014, August 3). A Rappler Corporation. Retrieved from A Rappler Corporation Web site: www.rappler.com

WHO. (2014, September 21). A WHO Corporation. Retrieved from A WHO Corporation Web site: http://www.who.int/medicalcenter/factsheet.com