IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION ON CIVIL SOCIETY 4
IMPACTOF GLOBALISATION ON CIVIL SOCIETY
Accordingto Ahmad and Palgrave Connect (Online service) (2013, p. 14),globalisation is the concept of interacting and integrating people,governments, different nations and companies. The primary drivingfactors of the globalisation process include international investmentand trade. Besides, advanced information technology facilitatesreal-time and affordable communication method for people located atdistinct places across the globe. The process influences prosperityand economic development, culture, environment, physical well-beingof people in international societies worldwide and political systems.The Suny Levin Institute (2014, P. 1) asserts that globalisationconcept has existed for more than a thousand years. In the ancientcivilisations, people facilitated globalisation as they moved fromone region to another with the aim of buying and selling products.For example, the famous Silk Road linked Europe, China, and theCentral Asia. In the eighteenth century, globalisation took the shapeof corporations. Organisations from countries with advancedtechnology begun investing in underdeveloped countries. Over theyears, social stratification led to the emergence of the slave trade.Slavery is a medieval practice that existed Before the Common Era incivilisations such as Egypt, Roman, and Greece. For example, theBabylonian’s 1754 law, “Code of Hammurabi”, is a collection ofrules concerning slaves such as wages they deserved for their labour.Presently, slavery is illegal in many places in the world.Nonetheless, human trafficking has substituted the traditional openslavery. The International labour Organisation (ILO) claims that theobjective of contemporary trafficking in persons includes forcedlabour, sexual slavery, ova extraction, surrogacy and forcedmarriages. Trafficking can occur at either local or internationallevel. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime(2009, p. 21), human trafficking is among the fastest developinginternational trade. The trade is worth billions of dollars, and itis present in more than 155 countries.
Accordingto the International Labour Organisation (ILO), human traffickersenslave up to 12.3 million people annually. About 2.5 million victimsare subjected to forced labour such as sexual exploitation andprostitution. Research also indicates that 56 % of the individualsin coerced labour are from the Pacific and Asia. Other people aredistributed across different countries such as Caribbean and LatinAmerica constitutes 10 % (250,000), 9.2 % (230,000) NorthernAfrica and Middle East, 10.8 % (270,000) originated from WesternEurope and USA, and 8 % (200,000) have their roots in eitherweakened or transitioning states that are in war. The United Nationsassert that human trafficking is a rampant vice that occurs in atleast 161 countries (Rahman 2011, 57).
A2003 UNICEF report on child trafficking stated that child traffickingaverages about 1.2 million per year. Most of the child victims areaged between eighteen and twenty-four years, and over 95 % of theindividuals have been subjected to sexual harassment. Most of thesexually molested victims are women and young girls. In 2006, The USDepartment of State claimed that 46 % of the trafficked individualsin the developed countries are into prostitution. In addition, othersare distributed in different industries such as sweatshops (5 %),domestic servitude (27 %), and agriculture (10 %) (Rahman 2011,57).
TheInternational Labour Organisation (ILO) reports that humantrafficking industry generated a profit $31.6 billion in 2010. Thebenefits were acquired through both forced labour and sexualexploitation of the victims. Approximately 49 % ($ 15.5 billion)came from industrialised countries while 30.6 % ($ 9.7 billion)came from Asia Pacific. Both Caribbean and Latin America generated4.1 % ($ 1.3 billion) while Sub-Saharan Africa generated 5 % (41.6 billion). Finally, the Middle East produced 4.7 % ($ 1.5billion) (Rahman 2011, 57).
Aspectsof globalisation that create or sustain human trafficking
Rahman(2011, p. 57) asserts that the globalisation is enhancing humantrafficking through increasing social stratification differences.Young people are lured to the developed nations or by internationalorganisations to apply for legitimate jobs such as air hostesses,clerks, accountants and teachers among other jobs. In fact, socialand economic vulnerabilities force some people to condone the illicittrade. For example, commercial sex work is a lucrative industry inBangladesh. Some parents introduce their young ones to the illegaltrade to generate income (Rahman 2011, p. 57). On the other hand, sextourism facilitated by international visitors visiting the area hasmade the business even more lucrative. Some tourists travel from faraway continents for the sake of engaging in sexual escapades.Availability of international travellers willing to pay a high costto sleep with foreign women or underage children encourages humantrafficking of women and young children to meet the social demand(Rahman, 2011, p. 59).
Advancedtechnology has interconnected countries significantly. Traders in theUnited States can quickly access products that are on sale in SouthAsia. Besides, traders can also purchase products online. Thisimplies that organised human trafficking can run smoothly becausetraders in areas where men, women and children are vulnerable canquickly acquire recruit human slaves through legitimate or coercionmethods, and then sell the individuals to international markets(Peerapeng et al. 2012, p. 124).
Globalisationis associated with expanded wealth, integration, and higher politicalstability. As a result, governments relax their human rightspolicies, which in turn provide a loophole for human traffickers toforcefully transfer or lure humans to engage in commercial sex,forced or underpaid labour. Furthermore, the free trade agreements(FTAs) among trade blocs such as Common Wealth makes it easy to takepeople either from or to given areas illegally. Majority of thetrafficked women and young girls are compelled to engage in sexualacts, either for serving customers directly or for creatingpornographic content that is sold on the internet. In fact, labourexploitation accounts for 19 % of the trafficked humans while 80 %of the individuals are exploited sexually (Peerapeng et al. 2012, p.124).
Luckily,the United Nations redefined human trafficking in year 2000 in orderto protect a bigger population. The new protocol was implemented in2003. The new policy states that receipt, transport, harbouring ortransfer of people through coercive means such as fraud deception byindividuals in high authority or abduction or using money.Additionally, the process of using money to acquire permission from aperson with authority over another to exploit the vulnerable personare all punishable offences under the new Human Trafficking controlprotocol of 2003 (Rahman 2011, p. 55).
Relationshipbetween human trafficking and globalisation challenges
Therecent wave of globalisation has made women and children traffickingimpossible because the perpetrators of the vice recruit with promisesof legitimate jobs. Many industrialised countries such as the UnitedStates import cheap labour from developing countries to work in theirindustries. Unfortunately, the expatriates are often subjected toslave-like working conditions upon arriving at their destination. Theemployers set stringent regulations including reimbursement of thecost of travelling, shelter and miscellaneous expenses which theyincurred while transporting the victims from their homeland. Theexpenses are deducted from the individuals’ salary until the sum isover. In many cases, contracts can take up to two years for workersto complete paying their debts (Global Alliance against Traffic inWomen, 2010 p. 16).
Globalisationhas increased employment, wages and education for women in poorcountries as they can migrate to the first world nations where jobopportunities are readily available. However, women and girls do notreceive similar benefits with men because they are discriminatedbased on race, class, and gender. For example, globalisation doescreate business opportunities such as Export Processing Zones (EPZs),but men are remunerated better than women are. The civil society hasbeen attempting to fight such discrimination and introduced equalityfor everyone (Global Alliance against Traffic in Women, 2010 p. 19).
Althoughglobalisation does assist in the creation of new job opportunities,it may also destroy the existing employment opportunities for women,which enhances trafficking. The most affected areas are public andagricultural sectors. As the agricultural sector transforms fromproducing essential supplies intended for the internal market toexport expected supplies, many women lose jobs. In addition, manywomen lose their jobs as previously public sectors are privatised toreduce direct government services to citizens (United Nations Officeon Drugs and Crime, 2009, p. 1). The shifts make the employmentsector unsuitable for women because they are often exposed to globaleconomic forces such as poor wages and gender discrimination.Financial strain on women that have lost job push them to searchingjobs overseas where they are susceptible to manipulation throughinadequate wages and enslavement (Global Alliance against Traffic inWomen 2010, p. 20).
Highpoverty levels, lack of employment opportunities and reducedgovernment services make women work in diverse sectors where theiremployers either underpay or even fail to compensate them. Womenrespond to such crisis through seeking employment in informal sectorswhile others prefer to migrate to other countries. According toGlobal Alliance against Traffic in Women (2010, p. 21), many womenthat cannot access legal migration documents are trafficked to theircountries of choice. Unfortunately, illegal migrants are forced to doeither illegal jobs such as prostitution or poor paying jobs sincethey have no work permits in their respective countries (GlobalAlliance against Traffic in Women, 2010 p. 21).
Lastly,globalisation has contributed to women trafficking as the jobopportunities it creates are intended for the skilled. Unfortunately,many women from the poor third world and developing countries provideunskilled labour. The untrained individuals planning to migrate toother countries often use illegal means since legitimate lawsadvocate skilled workers (Global Alliance against Traffic in Women,2010 p. 22).
Solutionsto curb global human trafficking
Oneof the effective strategies that the global community can adopt toeliminate discrimination is through establishing policies andregulations that emphasise on gender equality. In addition, theinternational and local government financial institutions’ policiesshould be gender sensitive. This implies that women should be capableof access loans and other financial assistance just like men.Eliminating economic discrimination helps in preventing undesirableconsequences for economically liberalised women, trade agreements,and structural and fiscal policies. Access to capital helps inempowering women to venture into legitimate businesses, as well asacquire the skills they need to qualify for legitimate workopportunities (Global Alliance against Traffic in Women 2010, p. 27).
Second,governments should establish migration regimes that meet therequirements of global demand and supply trends, which would openlegitimate migration outlet for the unskilled and skilledrespectively. This would discourage the illegal cross-bordermovements that make both women and girls vulnerable to exploitation.For example, illicit female immigrants often engage in sex tradebecause they cannot secure formal employment and other necessarypaperwork to assist them work in regular jobs (Global Allianceagainst Traffic in Women 2010, p. 27).
Thegovernment should also refrain from privatising firms since womenlose secure jobs. In addition, the government and otherinfrastructure development partners should focus on constructingfacilities that can provide employment opportunity for women. Thisimplies that policymakers should refrain from making decisions thatmay cause negative deductions towards women as caregivers and incomeproviders (Global Alliance against Traffic in Women 2010, p. 27).
Policymakersshould design and implement fully inclusive employment opportunitiesfor women. This includes offering unique work opportunities in thepublic works sector. For instance, a country can create a law thatrequire at least a third of employees in an organisation to be women.The policy can enhance equality and reduce gender discrimination thatcan make women potential victims of human trafficking when lookingfor a new job (Global Alliance against Traffic in Women 2010, p. 27).In fact, statistics indicates that approximately 12.3 million peopleare trafficked every year. The high number of victims proves thathuman trafficking is a very profitable business (Rahman 2011, p.56).Human trafficking is a vice that requires the combined effort by theinternational community such as the Interpol and the United Nations.In year 2000, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime endorsedthe Palermo Protocol, which was a new set of regulations that aimedat combating human trafficking at international level. Over onehundred and fifty countries have updated their anti-trafficking tomatch the Palermo recommendations (Rahman 2011, p.56).
Therole of United Nations in controlling human trafficking
UnitedNations is the central axis for controlling human trafficking becauseit has an international presence. This implies that it has access toglobal human trafficking trends and measures that each country uses.In addition, the organisation has vast information concerning biggroups that are involved in human trafficking, the plans they use andthe transportation methods that human smugglers use (Rahman 2011, p61).
Individualcountries cannot eliminate human trafficking because there are manyinternational criminal gangs with vast network and capacity forsmuggling humans from any part of the without attracting theattention of law enforcers. For example, the Japanese Yakuza, ChineseTriads and Italian, as well as Russian Mafias have elaborate humantrafficking strategies that help them to dodge police officers(Rahman 2011, p. 67). The UN acts as a central unit for tracking andintercepting trade activities associated with these groups. Besides,the UN links the Interpol and Non- Governmental Organisations (NGOs)activities to combat crime (United Nations 2000, p. 1).
In2000, the United Nations Convention created Palermo Protocol, whichis a guideline for addressing criminal activities internationally.Over one hundred and fifty countries have adopted the recommendedstrategies. The protocol is a law that details effective strategiesfor punishing, preventing and suppressing human smuggling,particularly women, and children. The new trafficking policycomplements the previous “United Nations Convention AgainstTransnational organised Crime” act (United Nations 2000, p. 1). Theorganisation has established comprehensive strategies intended tocombat and prevent illegal human transfer, particularly women, andgirls, from a global perspective. International laws are usefulbecause they can address the problem in the destination points, aswell as countries of origin and transit. Individuals involved in theillegal trade are charged under international human trafficking lawsthat are standardised by the UN’s Palermo Protocol. The aim ofstandardising the policy was ensuring that even human smugglingoriginating from countries with weaker laws against the crime, oreven states that have been weakened by war is effectively addressedcontrolled either during transit or at the delivery point (UnitedNations 2000, p. 1).
Accordingto The United Nations Human Rights Commission, many established humantrafficking syndicates are well financed, networked and experiencedin trading in a variety of commodities including illegal drugs andfirearms. For example, the Yakuza is a powerful group that noindividual country can effectively suppress (Rahman 2011, p. 66). TheUN integrates functions of combating all forms of organised crime atglobal level as it has the tools necessary to solve the problems(United Nations 2000, p. 1).
Contributionof bad governance to global human trafficking
Insecuritycaused by civil wars enhances human trafficking, both local andinternational, as women and children escape from atrocities such aschild soldier recruitment, rape, forced pregnancies, sexual slavery,forced recruitment into rebel groups and rampant killings. Gangsyndicates with promise of better jobs, living conditions, andattractive remuneration often transfer women and young girls tointernational countries. Desperation for escaping the war makes civilwar victims to exploitation by the traffickers. Some parents areoften forced to sell their daughters to gangs groups in exchange fora small fee. Mature girls may resolve to commercial sex work to earnincome (CdeBaca & Kerry 2014, p. 14). However, gang groupsdominating in the war zones force some of the girls soliciting forinto the trade. Differentiating between voluntary commercial sexworkers and victims of commercial sex work is difficult thereby,making international organisations such as the United Nations to curbthe menace in the region (CdeBaca & Kerry 2014, p. 26). Besides,weakened states such as Syria often have several syndicate ganggroups controlling specific areas. The state government lacks thecapacity to protect vulnerable citizens from abduction and coercioninto sexual slavery, rebel military and other forms of exploitativelabour is common in conflict zones (CdeBaca & Kerry 2014, p. 38).
Howdoes human trafficking challenge global security
Humantrafficking threatens global security because fundamentalist can movefrom one region to another. For example, September 11 attacks in theUSA partially succeeded because some extremists had managed to enterthe United States unnoticed by the authorities. Several terroristgroups thrive because extremism is interconnected. For example, theTamil Tigers in India had managed to develop into a rebel groupbecause it was foreign sympathisers were offered financial support tothe fighters (Hegghammer 2010, 656). Second, global human traffickingis challenging insecurity because established terrorists groups arecapable of transferring inexperienced soldiers from new conflictzones to secure war zones for further training. For example, recentreports indicate that several rebel militants fighting the Basharal-Assad regime are volunteer fighters from countries such asTunisia, Libya, and Iraq. In addition, other groups terrorists groupssuch as “Al – Shabaab” in Somalia and “Boko Haraam” inNigeria have managed to maintain an active battle front because theyreceive international support from other Islamic fundamentalistgroups such as such as “Al-Qaeda” (Hegghammer 2010, 59).
Presently,terrorism is a global threat because human trafficking has made iteasy for fighters to transverse different countries to offerexperienced personnel to train local militants. In addition, theincome generated from human trafficking activities such as commercialsex exploitation is used to finance war expenses such as purchasingweapons and remunerating combatants (Hegghammer 2010, 63). In RedLight districts of Mumbai, militants acquire several girls fromconflict zones and force them to work in the brothels. The abductorsthen use the income generated to finance war back at home (Hegghammer2010, 64).
Failedor warring states such as Syria, Libya, Somalia, and Iraq forms anexcellent training ground for terrorists that are then taken tosmuggled into politically stable countries so to train otherfundamentalists and cause chaos in respective countries. The fastexpanding international terrorism is a threat to global securitybecause extremists are destabilising other nations. For example, Mali(a country in Sub-Saharan Africa) has several child soldiers. Infact, some of the combatants are as young as twelve years old(CdeBaca & Kerry 2014, p. 38).
Commonsecurity challenges arising from global human trafficking
Althoughglobalisation has contributed significantly to the development, ithas created numerous security hurdles worldwide. One of the greatestchallenges is a quick expansion of advanced war technology. Humantrafficking makes it easy to transfer expatriates from one country orwarring conflict to another conveniently. For example, the Al-Qaedagroup was formerly based in Middle East, particularly Afghanistan,but the syndicate has gradually extended the Islamic fundamentalconcepts in the entire world. The group then provide loyalists withmilitary training and weapons that they in turn use in causing chaosin their enemies’ territories. According to Davis (2003, p. 2),global human trafficking may produce weapons of mass destruction(WMD) proliferation. In fact, the threat is eminent because even theprimary engineers that assisted the United States to make the AtomicBombs during the World War II were immigrants from Europe (Davis2003, p. 3).
Globalisationof human trafficking is also a threat to the communicationstechnology. Since the early 1990s, humans use information technologyand the internet to conduct several activities such as storingbusinesses’ information, operating banks, and even money transfer.However, the systems are vulnerable to disruptions and cyber-attack(Davis 2003, p. 3). Computer technicians can secretly access otherpeople’s computers and steal their personal information. Theconsequence of such an event is massive inconveniences or even lossof confidential data such as banking details of particular customers.Human trafficking provides leeway for fraudsters to get intocountries with vulnerable systems and steal confidential stateinformation, money from financial institutions and private data fromcompanies (Davis 2003, p. 3). For example, investigations claimed themassive cyber-attack on the Gulf Computers in 2012 involved someinsiders. Probably, the attackers coerced the individuals responsiblefor introducing a virus into the company’s system (Schreck 2012, p.1).
Anotherinternational security threat associated with human trafficking isspreading contagious infections. In many cases, smugglers areinterested in delivering the captives to the intended destinationwithout taking them through relevant medical tests that legalimmigrants undergo. For example, immigrants from various regions inthe world affected by Ebola virus are supposed to under quarantineand thorough medical examinations to protect citizens of therespective destination country (Davis 2003, p. 3). However, humantrafficking is a major threat to the health of the population as theycould help people suffering from dangerous communicable diseasesintroduce it to unsuspecting persons (Davis 2003, p. 4).
Thebest way to address global human trafficking challenge is througheducating citizens on the significance of eliminating the vice.Presently, the education is offered to federal employees, lawenforcement, first responders, businesses and individuals. Civiliansshould be educated on potential warning signs that can help them toidentify human trafficking victims. Second, the United Nations shoulddevelop strategies that can help to stabilise weakened states, aswell as countries experiencing internal upheavals. Politically stablestates can in turn protect the citizens from human traffickingexploitation from the grassroots. According to Global Allianceagainst Traffic in Women (2010, p. 27), politically stable countrieshave strong labour rights protectors, human rights implementers and abunch of other platforms created to subdue negative gender effects onwomen that may result in vulnerability to human trafficking.
Humantrafficking is a lucrative industry worth over $32 billion everyyear. The primary motivation factor for the business is a high cashgenerated from the industry. According to the United Nations’Palermo Protocol (2000), human trafficking refers to any activitythat leads to exploitation of other people for economic or otherpersonal gains using. In addition, human trafficking can be eitherlocal or external. Women and children are the most vulnerable groupto trafficking compared to men. Several female victims of humantrafficking are coerced to work in commercial sex industry. However,there are other forms of forced labour human trafficking victims mayface such as working in agriculture plantations, sweatshops, domesticwork and combatants for children in conflict zones. Over twelvemillion people fall victim to human trafficking every year.Individuals in failed states or conflict zones are more vulnerable tohuman trafficking compared to their counterparts in conflict-freeareas. The advanced information technology has played a significantrole in enhancing human trafficking in the contemporary world. Thetechnology makes it easy for human traffickers to acquire buyers fortheir captured persons. In addition, human trafficking hassubstantially contributed to the expansion of terrorism. Experiencedfighters from one region to other training militants that can wagewar on governments, as well as commit other atrocities aimed atachieving given objectives such as Islamic fundamentalism. Othersecurity challenges that global human trafficking pose is spreadingcontagious diseases from one region to another spreading Weapons ofMass Destruction (WMD) and disrupting communication infrastructure.Educating citizens on practical strategies for identifying humantrafficking victims, eliminating conflicts in warring countries andempowering the civil society by making policies that do notdiscriminate any gender can substantially reduce global humantrafficking.
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