Thisis basically a plan or a design which can be adopted for teachingpurposes. It is a methodology of teaching and how learning can beconducted effectively. An instruction model usually ascribe to aswell as focusing on learning theory. Depending on the learningenvironment, desired outcomes and the underlying specific goals,teachers are required to choose a suitable and appropriate model(Charles M. Reigeluth, 2009). It entails instructional strategieswhich facilitate students to be creative, develop thinking skills andlearn content with ease.
Instructionalmodel is considered by most Authors as a classroom strategy becauseof the model’s outlined strategies. classroomstrategies can be categorized into teacher-focused strategies andstudent-focused strategies. Teacher-focused strategies provide aframework on how teachers can develop learner-friendly presentationof the critical content. It outlines teaching practices whichfacilitate students to identify, comprehend and recall criticalcontents presented by teachers. Student-focused strategies providestudents the necessary skills that are required in learning. Theunderlying classroom strategies provided by instructional modelentails strategies for acquisition of content and information,organization and memorization of content, solving mathematicsproblems and expressing content in writing. Classroom strategiesattributed to instructional model can be listed as strategies toremember studied content, read and write, effective interaction inclass, cooperative thinking, improve test performance and assignment,motivate and finally enhancing teacher teamwork.
Itis notable that instructional model support student learning invarious ways. It promotes cooperative learning where students areorganized to complete tasks in groups each member contributing. Thiscultivates respect and understanding of student’s abilities andthis creates a sense of encouragement and being responsible learners.Group discussion is also part of instructional model and it isessential in enhancing life skills in learning. Students learn toexpress their opinions and views and they are able to considerdifferent views thus enabling them develop problem solving skills. entails independent study where individuals canfocus on a specific topic, analyze information, define problems,apply skills and deduce what has been learned. This model introducesportfolio development and this provides opportunity for students toillustrate their learning accomplishments. Finally is role-playingwhere students develop effective communication skills and exploreareas where they can put into practice thus facilitating learning(Reigeluth, 2013).
Thetheoretical support that authors supporting this model ascribe toentails the following. First is the need by the students tounderstand fully the concept of knowledge at the same time developingcritical and creative thinking skills, this model has a framework inwhich combination of concepts, principles, facts, generalization,rules and relationships can be taught systematically. This modelenables students to learn and work collaboratively and this increasesstudent’s participation providing a platform for developingleadership and decision making capability. Finally, this modelfacilitates building and use of learner’s prior knowledge extendingthe underlying concepts enabling learners and students understandabstract and more complex ideas.
Toa greater extent this model has its strengths basing on the fact thatits framework and underlying strategies apply not just in classroombut also in other places and institutions. Most of these strategiesare effective and works in various settings supporting new learning.Notable weaknesses of this model is overemphasis on knowledge domain and problem solving this results into focusing much on contentdomain instead of the learner engaging in authentic problem solving(Reigeluth, 2013).
CharlesM. Reigeluth, A. A.-C. (2009). Instructional-DesignTheories and Models, Volume III: Building a Common Knowledge Base.Boston: Routledge.
Reigeluth,C. M. (2013). Instructional-designTheories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, Volume2.London: Routledge.