International Relations Questions Lecturer

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InternationalRelations Questions


InternationalRelations Questions


Anon-state actor is an entity that takes part in internationalrelations at a level where they can influence change even if they arenot nations. These institutions form a network of entities that havethe power to change policies of countries and international policiesthrough their operations at the global level. A network of thenon-state actors relate to countries as well as non-stateinstitutions at a level that puts them on the global map asinfluential organizations that command authority1.Some of networks or non-state actors include structured interestorganizations like the Non-Governmental Organizations andMultinational Corporations. The networks also include armed interestgroups like criminal organizations, drug cartels, terrorist groupsand ethnic organizations.


Terrorismis hard to define because of its complexity in terms of ideology andoperations. The term is not specific because it involves adescription of different aspects of terrorism. For instance,terrorism is an ideology because it is powered by the extremistperception that people can get their demands through violence2.At the same time, terrorism is based on the premise that there is agroup of people who use terror to repel the ideas of the westernworld. Similarly, terrorism involves an armed group of people who useviolence against perceived enemies which mostly are religiouslymotivated. Therefore, definitions give an ambiguity because they donot point out the specific description of terrorism, which remainsunknown.


Uncivilnetworks form because of extreme ideological beliefs that unite themembers of the network into a structured organization, inspired bythe ideologies. They form because of the belief that their rights aresuperior to others and they are warranted to use violence as themeans of presenting their demands. This is the reason why mostuncivil networks are based on extremist religious ideologies. Thefight for the rights of some of the groups takes extremist ideologiesthat are motivated to use violence such as those in Pakistan3.In addition, they thrive because of the existence of unstablecountries to operate from.


Humantrafficking is the illegal transportation of people for unlawfulpurposes such as sexual exploitation and forced labor. It involvestrading human beings from one place to another for gains that are notlawful. Human trafficking represents a high level of violation ofhuman rights as well as the dignity of the victims. Human traffickingis still prevalent in the modern society and is often dangerous thanthe slavery times. This is because it happens despite the growth ofdemocracy and the onset of a world that respects social rights forall. At the same time, human trafficking also involves other crimesand development of cartels that traffic people without detection bythe law4.


Strongerarms control norms do not exist because of the lack of commitment bysome nations to end unstructured and illegal movement of arms. Thelack of commitment is founded by the use of diplomacy to control armsin the world, as it is currently done5.Arms control involves restriction of the production, stocking and theproliferation of arms and weapons of mass use. Currently,international treaties are the main tools of controlling arms, whichgives a room for violation of the agreements. Therefore, countriesthat are not committed to such agreements promote the production anddistribution of arms against the global concerns.


Councilon ForeignRelations,2013. FacingGlobal Challenges, Web,Accessed, November 28, 2014&lt!&gt

Councilon ForeignRelations.CrisisGuide Pakistan, Web,Accessed, November 28, 2014&lt

Doyle,Michael. Waysof War and Peace: Realism, Liberalism, and Socialism.NewYork: W. W. Norton &amp Company, 1997

Lawson,Stephanie. Polarization to Globalization in World Politics?MillenniumJournal of International Studies,2003 32: 134 Cambrige: Polity Press

1 Doyle, Michael. Ways of War and Peace: Realism, Liberalism, and Socialism. New York: W. W. Norton &amp Company, 1997

2 Lawson, Stephanie. Polarization to Globalization in World Politics? Millennium Journal of

International Studies, 2003 32: 134 Cambrige: Polity Press

3 Council on Foreign Relations. Crisis Guide Pakistan, Web, Accessed, November 28, 2014 &lt

4 Council on Foreign Relations, 2013. Facing Global Challenges, Web, Accessed, November 28, 2014 &lt!&gt

5 Doyle, Michael. Ways of War and Peace: Realism, Liberalism, and Socialism. New York: W. W. Norton &amp Company, 1997