Native Americans

NativeAmericans

The can be traced back before the first explorerChristopher Columbus landed in the new lands. This means that the were the first people to discover the new unhabitedarea. These people were believed to have trekked all the way fromAsia towards the new land long before the 15thCentury A.D when the new explorer arrived in the Bahamas. By the timeChristopher arrived in the new lands, it is believed that there werealready more than fifty millions natives living across America. Thefollowing finding seeks to find out the historical aspect of the, their beliefs as well as culture and the way theyaffect the current Californian life.

Allthe native people that were already present in the land of America,approximately ten million of them were residing in an area that wouldlater become the United States of America. The great geographers andanthropologist divided the into ten groups dependingon their cultural areas and habitat during their nomadic moves aswell as their religion. The groups were divided into the arctic, thenortheast, the subarctic, the southwest, the plains, the northwestcoast, the southeast, California, the Great Basin and the plateau.

Allthe different groups had been divided according to their culturallocation and their beliefs in relation to settlement. Concentratingon the Californian group, one is able to learn that the area wastemperate and hospitable before the Europeans landed. Pritzker (2003)states that the area had approximately three hundred thousand nativesin the middle of the 16thcentury. This is a number that no other among the ten locations had,and this made them more diverse. These inhabitants were said to comefrom more than one hundred tribes, and they spoke over two hundreddialects. The dialect was related to the Penutian, the Uto-Aztecan,the Hokan and the Athapaskan. They had an unique diet where theyrelied on acorn. They used to pound the acorn into flour and rinse itoff the bitter tannic acid. The flour could then be used to bakebread, boiled to make soup or augmented to give a healthy diet. Thisdiet has dominated the lands, even to this day and time. Thereligious aspect of the was more complex because ofits diverse nature(Zott,2012).However, they basically viewed the world as it is, and carried outrituals through advances formulae. They also relied on healingartists who had extensive knowledge of body functionality. Thehealers were also in connection with spiritual influences that causedphysical harm. They believed that the nature is sacred and issupposed to be kept holy. It was said to be the only location thathad a complex linguistic landscape than Europe during that period.

Despitethis complex landscape, the inhabitants lived a common life wherethey did not practice agriculture but relied on hunting. Theyorganized themselves into groups and mostly those with family tiesand lived on hunting and gathering. They used to trade between thesmall groups known as tribe let. The common factors of familyrelationship ensured that they become peaceful as they practiceIntertrade businesses. The general way that native people were doingthings has a lot to do with the current life in California. Most ofthe beliefs that native Americans were practicing has a significantinfluence to the current living in this city.

However,the lives of the did not continue for long withoutbeing distracted by the Spanish explorers in the middle of the 16thCentury that invaded California. The explorers infiltrated the landsand later in the late 1760’s a Spanish cleric Junipero started amission at one city called San Diego. This mission was not meant tobring about the mutual continuity that was there before, but to starta brutal period of forced labor towards the native communities. Therewere also introduction of diseases and assimilation that played apart in the extermination of the native population (Pointer,2007).

Theremnants of live a different life today than theylived centuries ago. However, they still hold a significant level ofpride and independence as they have the root of the first inhabitantsof the new lands. Their long time practice has a significantinfluence to the current life in the city. They are known toappreciate nature as their forefathers did, where most of them livein reservations. Their lives in the past centuries includedappreciating health and spirituality as well as environmentalconservation. For this reason, they discovered ways of healingphysical illnesses through spirituality and nature. Their familieswere organized in a different way than that of Europeans. This isbecause the wives were charged with responsibilities like erectinghouses, growing crops, and all that was related to home duties. Onthe other hand, men were charged with fishing and hunting as well asparticipating in war (Pritzker, 2000). This was contrary to theEuropeans where a lot of the same activities were being done andregarded differently. This started changing after the Europeans cameover and the demand of fur and hide grew. The event caused theEuropeans to regard the hunters as crucial, just because theysatisfied the demand of fur and hide.

Thedecline of the started to reverse in the late 1900’swhen the federal government brought about relocation and job trainingprograms. This action caused more Indians to relocate from otherstates and settle in the current California. However, these peoplewere still tied into their traditions and this made them poorer. Mostof them were jobless and lived in rural reservations because they didnot have an education. The formation of groups like the AmericanIndian History Society and other organization saw a breakthrough tothe poor aspect that they were living. It gave them permission tostart their own casinos in the Californian reserves, and played acrucial role in the economic development of the place, as well as theentire country. The still hold on to their beliefsand are proud to be the first inhabitants of the new land. They havecontributed significantly to the growth of California since it hasthe most .

References:

Pritzker,B., &amp Pritzker, B. (2000). ANative American encyclopedia: History, culture, and peoples.Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrived fromhttp://books.google.com/books?id=ZxWJVc4ST0AC&amppg=PA112&ampdq=Natives+of+California&amphl=en&ampsa=X&ampei=jXKBVO7-O4L7ywOyiYGgDQ&ampved=0CEAQ6wEwBg#v=onepage&ampq=Natives%20of%20California&ampf=false

Pointer,R. (2007). Encountersof the spirit and European colonial religion.Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Retreived fromhttp://books.google.com/books?id=qktQGOweZvIC&ampprintsec=frontcover&ampdq=Encounters+of+the+spirit+Native+Americans+and+European+colonial+religion+by+Pointer&amphl=en&ampsa=X&ampei=72-BVILMNsXYPJLygbgK&ampved=0CCAQ6wEwAA#v=onepage&ampq=Encounters%20of%20the%20spirit%20Native%20Americans%20and%20European%20colonial%20religion%20by%20Pointer&ampf=false

Zott,L. (2012). TheWisdomNativeAmericans.Detroit: Greenhaven Press. Retreived fromhttp://books.google.com/books?id=_fazLoHRP90C&ampprintsec=frontcover&ampdq=Native+Americans&amphl=en&ampsa=X&ampei=Em-BVIizNYnBOuuRgLgJ&ampved=0CB4Q6wEwAA#v=onepage&ampq=Native%20Americans&ampf=false