New Bangladesh

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NewBangladesh

Bangladeshnationis locatedin South Asia borderingIndia to itseast,northandwestfacingBay of Bengal to itssouthandseparatedfrom Bhutan andNepal by theSiliguri Corridor. ModernBangladesh cameout as an independentcountryin theyear1971 after attainingindependencefrom Pakistan during Bangladesh Liberation War. Bangladeshnationalismis a philosophyemergedin 1970s andpromulgatedZiaur Rahman, formerBangladesh president.ModernBangladesh islargelydominatedby Islam with1a Muslim populationof about 148.6 million makingup90.4% of Bangladesh entirepopulation.Islamism risein thepastthirty yearshas greatlyinfluencedpolitical,social,andeconomicagendaas wellas discourseas thedocumentbelow shows.

Discussion

Duringthepoliticaldisturbancesof 1971, peoplefrom East Pakistan’s societyespeciallyJamaat-i-Islamic members,decidednot to supportthemovementof independencesupportingthePakistani armyinstead.Theywereassociatedwith someof themassmurderthat tookplace.ImmediatelyBangladesh gainedindependencetheyweremarginalized.2Asa result,takingpartin during thecivilwar.In additionthefounderof Bangladesh, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman opted to forma secular,democraticnation.Asa result,Bangladesh Islamic elementsremaineddormantandwerenot ableto challengetheirauthoritypublicly.Theirchanceto reassert themselvesemergedunder theAwami Leagues’s governance. Itsincompetence,mal-administration, corruption,which ledto Sheikh Mujib’s murderandoverthrowing of hisgovernmentin 1975.

Againstthesurroundings of September 11th that resultedto War on terror,thenetworkof Al Qaeda descendedto Bangladesh. Thiswasmadepossibleby thefragileeconomyof thecountryandalsoweakabilityto fightterrorism. Al Qaeda has hada considerablepresencein Bangladesh signifiedby movementssuchas Jagrato Muslim Janata Bangladesh (JMB) andHarkatul Jihad al-Islam (HUJIB) formedin 1992. HUJIB wasformedwith theaimof to instituteIslamic hukumat(rule).Itwascomprisedof expertsof the2Afghan jihad. HUJIB is saidto havegottenearlyfunding from International Islamic Front ownedby Bin Laden.3

JMBwasstartedin theyear1998 with theobjectiveof creatingsharia lawthrough armedrevolution.ItshighestleaderwasShaikh Abdur Rahman followedby Siddiqur Rahman, whowasthemilitarywingleader.In 2004 SiddiqurterrorizedBangladesh northernpartas partof thewaron bannedMarxist extremists.TheJMB is saidto haveabout 10,000 permanentand100,000 membersare on part-time includingstudents,ordinarycitizensandteachers.4Thetwo movementsHUJIB andJMB resembledtheJama’at-i-Islami(JI) which wasfoundedby Syed Abul Ala Moududiin 1940’s which wasdisqualifiedas a communalparty.

Asa resultof militantIslamists takingpartpolitically, there is littledemocracyin theBangladesh politicalparties.In theparliament,partieshaveopted forextra-parliamentary strategieshenceunderminingtheroleof parliament.Consequently, nearlyallparliamentaryproceedingsare involvedin merepoliticsandnodevelopmental agendashenceaffectingthecountry’seconomicvision.Ithas alsoledto increasingterrorism activitieshencecreatingunconducive environmentforbusinessesto thrive.TheBangladesh constitutionsetupIslam as thereligionof thestatebuttherightto practiceone’schoiceof religionhas beenprovidedfor.Followingradicalactivities,thishas not beenimplementedcompletelyas a resultof politicalinterferences.

Radicalmovementshaveinterferedwith freedomof expressiongreatlyespeciallyto themediawhichissupposed.Radicalshaveintimidated,harassedandevenassassinatewritersas wellas journalistswhoareviewedun-Islamic. RadicalshavealsolaunchedsporadicattackstheminorityHindu populationandhaveissuethreatsthatAhmadiyya community’smosques should bedestroyed.Theseinterferencesandt3herisinginsecurityhaveledto illegalimmigrationof Bangladesh communitiesto theneighboringcountriesan accusationthat Bangladesh denieshencecreatinga dullrelationshipwith countriessuchas India.

Whileglobalization has resultedinto greateconomicopportunitiesto a smallnumberof people,ithas contributedto wideningdisparitiesin incomeearning accordingto a studythat wasdoneby International Finance Corporation. Thestudyalsoindicatesthat80 of theentirepopulationlivesunder thepovertyline.Bangladesh has beenranked146th out of 187 nationsby Human Development Index of 2011 by theUnited Nations. Theloweconomicgrowthhas beenblamedon theinsecurityandterrorism activitiesthat are broughtaboutby theradicalmovements.Thismiserablesituationfurtherencouragestheradicalmovementsto increasetheiractivities.Furthermore,variationin two majorpoliticalpartieshas shownminimumregardsas faras economicprosperity,humanfreedomas wellas theruleof lawareconcerned.Thisshowsthatradicalmovementsstillhaveagreatimpacteconomically, sociallyas wellas politically in Bangladesh.

Conclusion4

BangladeshnationalsinhibitedMuslims as themajorityreligion.ModernBangladesh islargelydominatedby Islam with a Muslim populationof about 148.6 million makingup90.4% of Bangladesh entirepopulation.Thecountryisassociatedby Islamic radicalsmovementssuch as Jagrato Muslim Janata Bangladesh (JMB and Harkatul Jihadal-Islam (HUJIB) which largelydeterminethepoliticalandsocialactivitiesof Bangladesh. Theriseof militantIslamists has resultedin littledemocracyin theBangladesh politicalparties.Thishas influencedthemajorityof lawspassedin theparliamentwhicharebasedin merepoliticsandhavelessconcerning economic strategies as well as thedevelopmental agendaof thecountry.Sociallyfreedomof worshiphas beenaffectedsince theminorityreligiousgroupsareattackeda regularbasis.Thishas ledto illegalmigrationto theneighboringcountriesandalsopovertyto thepeopleof Bangladesh population.

Bibliography

Ahmed,Rafiuddin. Religion,Identity &amp Politics: Essays on Bangladesh.Colorado Springs, CO: International Academic Publishers, 2001.

Ahmed,Salahuddin. Bangladesh:Past and Present.New Delhi: A.P.H. Pub. Corp, 2004.

Cragg,Claudia. TheNew Maharajahs: The Commercial Princes of India Today.London: Century, 1996.

Kandiyoti,Deniz. Women,Islam, and the State.London: Macmillan, 1991. Print.

Kibria,Nazli. Muslimsin Motion: Islam and National Identity in the Bangladeshi Diaspora.New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2011. Internet resource.

Karim,Nehal. TheEmergence of Nationalism in Bangladesh.Dhaka, Bangladesh: University of Dhaka, 1992. Print.

1 Cragg, Claudia. The New Maharajahs: The Commercial Princes of India Today. London: Century, 1996.

2 Ahmed, Rafiuddin. Religion, Identity &amp Politics: Essays on Bangladesh. Colorado Springs, CO: International Academic Publishers, 2001.

23 Kandiyoti, Deniz. Women, Islam, and the State. London: Macmillan, 1991.

4 Karim, Nehal. The Emergence of Nationalism in Bangladesh. Dhaka, Bangladesh: University of Dhaka, 1992.

35. Kibria, Nazli. Muslims in Motion: Islam and National Identity in the Bangladeshi Diaspora. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2011.

46 Ahmed, Salahuddin. Bangladesh: Past and Present. New Delhi: A.P.H. Pub. Corp, 2004.