PERSONALITY CASE STUDY 5
What personality disorder might Patrick have been suffering from inhis earlier days according to DSM IV why?
According to DSM 5, Patrick may have been suffering from a learningdisorder in his earlier days. The case study reveals that school wasnot easy for Patrick at first and he was not competitiveacademically. After going to a public school, he was held back atfirst grade most probably because he started kindergarten at age fiveinstead of six. According to DSM 5 classification of learningdevelopmental disorders, individuals with learning disorder performbelow average in a particular area which is well below for their age.The fact that Patrick was younger than his classmates may have posedas a challenge for him. Specific learning disorder is involvesdifficulties in learning and using academic skills. Some childrenexperience learning disorders in specific subjects such asmathematics or languages.
Biologically, learning disorders originate from genetic orenvironmental factors. The brain’s ability to perceive or processinformation accurately is affected. Unlike crawling or walking whichare developmental milestones that come as the brain matures, academicskills have to be learnt and taught explicitly. With specificlearning disorder, it becomes impossible for normal pattern oflearning and acquisition of academic skills. It is possible tooutgrow learning disorders as evident in Patrick’s case. Afterbeing transferred to an elite private school with smaller classes,his academic performance improved. He matured and caught up withother children. The years ahead of him were characterized withacademic excellence and good results.
How might Patrick rate on each of the Big 5 traits and why?
Patrick can be rated at 3 and 5 according to the big 5 traits.Factor three describes Openness and qualities like original,independent, creative and daring. Patrick was an open child rightfrom his childhood. He was an original child who made his owndecisions independently. After attending private school for threeyears, he requested his parents to take him back to public school sothat he could study with his friends. After being transferred topublic school, he did not disappoint and earned good grades.Patrick’s creativity made him receive popularity as a witty boy andclown in his class. His creativity earned him money from his fellowstudents after reselling éclairs he had bought at a profit. He wasdaring and attempted to ask his teachers to store for him éclairs,something that other students would not attempt to do. However, hisgood grades and charming personality made him very popular.
Apart from openness, conscientiousness or trait 5 can be used torate Patrick. Common features of this trait are being careful,reliable, hardworking and organized. This traits suit Patrick as hewas very careful not to disappoint his father since he was young. Hewanted to excel and become like his father to avoid any conflicts butget approval. He worked very hard to overcome his learning challengesand managed to make it as a good student. Patrick is reliable and hiswife describes him as a devoted family man who is wonderful. He wasable to make it to law school through working hard and earn a job inhis father’s law firm then get partnership on his own. He isorganized in that he manages to perform all his duties with noerrors. In school he was an exceptional athlete and still a goodstudent while as a father he attends all his children’s functionsand still is an active congregational church elder.
An example of Carl Rogers disorder in this case study and how itchanged for Patrick
The person-centered theory greatly changed Patrick’s life. Thistheory assesses personality in terms of one’s subjectiveexperiences and the events they have gone through. Patrick chose notto focus on his past life where his father would come home drunk andbeat his mother. Instead, he purposed to work hard and excel in hisstudies. Person-centered theory explains acceptance or perception ofone’s experiences as a determiner of their self-concept. Weevaluate life experiences by how well they serve and keep movingtowards self-actualization through repeating desirable experiencesand avoiding those experiences that are not desirable. As the selfgrows, it desires positive regard. This is evident in the desire foracceptance, love and approval from others. Patrick wanted to getapproval for his prowess in athletics and academics. The opposite ofpositive regard is unconditional positive regard. The person centeredapproach aims at getting to a fully functioning person who is fullyaware of all their experiences, lives a full and rich life, istrusting, independent of thought, creative and lives constructively.
Find examples of Skinner’s radical behaviorism in the case study.How did reinforcement or punishment influence Patrick’s behavior.Specify
Skinner’s radical behaviorism explains behavior as a simpleconcept that is controlled by its consequences. According to Skinner,behavior should be reinforced or punished for certain reasons.Punishment for example influenced Patrick’s life greatly. As achild, he heard his father comment about his brother and say howembarrassed he was for having such a child. At times, he would saythat Patrick’s older brother was not possibly his biological sonbecause of his traits. This comments secretly affected Patrick whowas afraid of disappointing his father to that extent. As a result,he worked hard to get approval and tried conforming to his father’swishes.
In school, Patrick enjoyed being competitive. As a good student, hereceived reinforcements in form of recognition and favors from histeachers. He grew to be like his father in sports and his latercareer as a lawyer. However, despite all his achievements, Patrickwas always unsure of himself due to fear for his father’s criticalnature.
Patrick’s behavior according to Bandura’s social cognitivelearning theory in terms of modeling and self-efficacy
The basis of social cognitive theory is reinforcement is anessential element for learning to take place. According to Bandura,reinforcement increases behavior probability and the acquisition ofnew behavior. Reinforcement thus is not a consequence of behaviorresponse but an antecedent to guide subsequent behavior. Socialcognitive learning also entails learning in a social context throughobservation also referred to as modeling. Parents are role models andchildren learn a lot from them. Patrick is a good example as hisbehavior explains similar traits acquired from his father. He alwayswanted to please his father and even ended up studying for a careersimilar to his.
Self-efficacy is crucial in learning and helps us to know that wecan accomplish a task and reflect on the accomplishment.Self-efficacy is similar to self-actualization whereby an individualis able to look back, see what they have achieved, and feel proud. Itinvolves a behavioral cycle through which people keep growing,learning and improving to become better. The fulfillment is thereward for successful acquisition of a task. Self-efficacy aims atreaching one’s goals. Patrick became a lawyer and is living thelife he had always wanted, feeling accomplished.