Pesticide Residue in Human Milk Results

PesticideResidue in Human Milk

Results

Thecontinued use of Organochlorine pesticide has put human milk to be atrisk, as it contains residues of pesticides. This has put the problemunder scrutiny, through scientific test. In this case, a totality of25 samples of human milk, were scientifically analyzed fororganochlorine, identified to be pesticide residues.

Thiswas with the content of fat in the samples of human milk, getting torange from 0.3 ± 12%, while the majorities contained 1 ± 3% of fat,a comparable range to previously conducted surveys (Cook &amp Baker,2013). Cis-chlordane residues, oxychlordane, trans-chlordane, aldrin,o,p`-DDT, p,p`-TDE, heptachlor, endosulphan sulphate, a-HCH,heptachlor epoxide, a-endosulphan, endrin or b-endosulphan werehowever not detected (Rojas-Squella,et.al.,2013).The detectable residues results of samples containing the pesticidesare summarized in Table 1.

Table1:Summary of residue contents, detected in human milk in mg/kg of milkfat

Residue

% of samples with detectable residues

Mini.

Maxi.

Median

Mean

p,p`-DDT

3.60

&lt0.0080

0.8000

0.0250

0.0400

p,p`-DDE

98.20

&lt0.0600

4.0000

0.2830

0.4300

Dieldrin

14.90

&lt0.0080

0.3500

0.0250

0.0480

HCB

23.20

&lt0.0120

0.3330

0.0250

0.0430

b-HCH

36.30

&lt0.0080

0.7500

0.0500

0.0680

g-HCH

1.80

&lt0.0080

0.2000

0.0250

0.0350

Thisis significant for the rationale of statistical analysis (Kroger&amp Patton, 2013). The summary reveals residue contents of p,p`-DDEas having the highest percentage in human milk fat, with subsequencesof b-HCH, to HCB, to Dieldrin, to p,p`-DDT and g-HCH. Equally thesummary reveals the maximum and minimum mg/kg, detected in eachcompound, revealing the median and mean of the contents.Throughthe findings, samples, found to have non-detectable residues areassigned equivalent values to quantification frontier of 2. In the 19samples drawn from individual mothers, the mothers’ ages rangedfrom 17 ± 39 years with a mean 28.4 years and generally, parities of1 ± 6 having a mean of 1.8. Residue concentration correlations werealso analyzed in the research giving out age and parity as outlinedin Table2.

Table2: Correlationsresidue of organochlorine pesticide and its concentration through ageand parity

Age

Parity

p,p`-DDT

p,p`-DDE

Dieldrin

HCB b-

HCH g-

HCH

Age

1.0000

Parity

0.2460

1.0000

p,p`-DDT

-3.5E-16

3.19E-16

1.0000

p,p`-DDE

0.2490

-0.0640

4.63E-16

1.0000

Dieldrin

0.0640

-0.0030

4.8E-16

-0.0380

1.0000

HCB

0.1160

-0.0590

5.65E-16

0.5670

0.0800

1.0000

b-HCH

-0.2030

-0.1760

6.35E-16

0.1420

0.1810

0.6040

1.0000

g-HCH

-0.1080

-0.1330

1.34E-15

0.2360

0.1200

0.2960

0.4530

1.0000

Correlationsof the residue concentration through age and parity are evidentacross all the compounds. Extensively, age has been linked toconcentrations, which may result from processes of bio-concentration,bio-magnifications or even bio-accumulation, equal to parity (Minh,et.al.,2004).The adjustment of the data through the limited consideration ofprimiparous women, found out correlations, which were stronger inthese combinations, as observed in Table 3 below. With age inparticular, dieldrin, p,p`-DDE, b-HCH and HCB concentrations, got tobe correlated highly.

Table3:Correlationsof pesticide residue of organochlorine in concentration by age, froma sample of primiparous women

Age

p,p`-DDT

p,p`-DDE

Dieldrin

HCB b-

HCH g-

HCH

Age

1.0000

p,p`-DDT

0.0120

1.0000

p,p`-DDE

0.8540

0.0590

1.0000

Dieldrin

0.6610

-0.3860

0.7200

1.0000

HCB

0.5280

0.4920

0.1160

-0.0300

1.0000

b-HCH

0.6850

0.7010

0.7250

0.1970

0.5470

1.0000

g-HCH

-0.1590

0.7000

-0.0830

-0.1810

0.2600

0.3510

1.0000

It’snotable that correlations of pesticide residue concentration linkedby age through numbers of primiparous women prevail. g-HCH, prevailsacross all levels, subsequently reducing to p,p`-DDT (Khwaja,et.al.,2013).Under detailed recorded considerations, 3 women got reported to besmokers, as compared to 11 women who were non-smokers. Noconsiderable differences were observed between residuesconcentrations in smokers or even non-smokers.

Table4:Comparison of mean organochlorine pesticide residues concentrationsin human milk in mg/kg of whole milk in interval sampling

Sampled mothers

numbers

Dieldrin

p,p`-DDT

p,p`-DDE

b-HCH g-

HCH

HCB

Ref

19

0.0060

0.0450

0.0730

0.0130

0

0

2

2

0.0020

0.0030

0.0410

0.0070

0.0070

0.0040

3

0.0010

0.0020

0.0290

0.0050

&lt0.0010

0.0020

1

13

&lt0.0010

&lt0.0010

0.0090

0.0020

&lt0.0010

&lt0.0010

4

16

0.0010

&lt0.0010

0.0090

0.0010

&lt0.0010

&lt0.0010

present

Table5:Comparisons of percentage in samples detectable to be containingresidues

Sampled mothers

numbers

Dieldrin

p,p`-DDT

p,p`-DDE

b-HCH g-

HCH

HCB

Ref

19

100

100

100

100

0

0

2

2

78

61

99

80

55

97

3

28

43

100

95

0

95

1

13

33

3

99

82

18

27

4

16

15

4

98

36

2

23

present

Theresults of the entire survey got compared in Tables 4 and 5 with theresidue summary drawn from the previous surveys. As a continuingtrend, these results displayed a reduction trend in the pesticideresidues concentrations evidently found in samples of human milk andin the human milk samples percentage, containing residues (Schinas,et.al.,2000).However, to some point fluctuation and reductions in content indifferent intervals were notable.

Discussion

Thefat content variation in the human milk samples, which were analyzed,indicated the possibility that the samples comprised some residues,both at the pre- and or the post-feed samples, taken from variousvillage locations and times in lactating mothers (Kumar,et.al.,2006).

Thesamples were collected without the concentrations standardization proto any changes in fat or even the residues of organochlorinepesticide that tend to unveil in the feeding course, in day time andthe entire period of lactation in mothers. Corresponding studiescarried out elsewhere in the world have been using that similarmethodology, as a way to justify the problem statement. Althoughthese data are considered acceptable in the assessment of changesregarding to residue concentrations, the data is not robustsufficiently to conduct assessments in residue intake, which are moreprecise.

Residuesextracted out of 18 sought were organochlorine, isomers ormetabolites with only six compounds getting to be detected above thequantification limit. The major and frequently detected residue wasfound to be p,p`-DDE, which was found in all the samples, with astand out of 98% as represented in the chart below.

Chart1: Percentageof samples with detectable residues

Thisis a very important figure, as it substantiates these componentspresence in the bodies of lactating mothers, and as a matter of fact,it directly gets to affect infants (Ennaceur,Gandoura &amp Driss, 2008).

Residueconcentration correlations versus age of parity, point outcorrelations that were weak, involving age and parity, p, p`-DDTconcentrations with age, p,p`-DDT concentrations and HCB, p,p`-DDTconcentrations with g-HCH, HCB concentrations with b-HCH and b-HCHconcentrations with g-HCH. As tabulated, these correlations got to bestronger in the primiparous consideration of women strongly, asrepresented in the graph below.

Graph1: Correlationsof pesticide residue by age of primiparous women

However,in smokers or even nonsmokers no significant disparities were evidentbetween residue concentrations, as cigar does not entail suchcompounds, which get to be in pesticides.

Thedata tabulated, shows a downward that is on a continued trend. Themean concentrations are based on the continued interval studies. Thetrend that generally downwards in the sample percentage containdetectable residues that also get to be shown even though the samplepercentage, which contain p,p`-DDE residues have constantly remained.This terms p,p`-DDE as a cross cutting residue which affectsmothers, regardless of age and parity, as represented in the graphbelow.

Graph2: Type of pesticide residue against interval samples of mothers

TheDDE or DDT residues ratio in human milk, through the tabulations isnoted to be increasing from two in the initial survey to 14 ± 15 inthe next survey and 18 in the subsequent surveys. It is noted to beon the ratios of 1: 2, with high values simultaneously totaling DDTas indicative. The indicative property of DDT enables it to get theentrance into the environment with ratios that are greater thaneight. However, indicating that DDT no longer enters into theenvironment as a matter of fact, supporting the DDT usage pattern.

SupportingDDT usage means that, DDT gets accredited to control malaria in somecases, even though on the other perspective, it is not accredited tomalaria controlling, because it is depicted to have effects emanatingfrom the spraying programs, to women at long run. However, thisillustration gets validated only when women tend to have contact withDDT, while in farms spraying crops (Wong,et.al.,2005).

Inthe comparison of studies conducted at the similar time period, inthis present study, residues were evident to occur at similarconcentrations and even lower concentrations (Solomon&amp Weiss, 2002).The organochlorine establish in the 25 samples survey of human milkthat were collected were low. These studies therefore purposed atmonitoring of environmental trends with regard to pesticideconcentrations as residues, rather than assessing the risk to babiesbeing breastfed (Wong,et.al.,2002).Regardless of the low organochlorine concentrations, presence aspesticide residues, there is a need to encourage continuedbreastfeeding as a convincing basis evident on the benefits, whichget to be derived from human milk to the overall infant developmentand health.

Organochlorine(OCPs) concentration and Urbanization, as factors get to underliepesticide residue presence in human milk.Acomparison of both rural an urban get portrayed, throughconcentration variance in amounts of the chemicals found in samplesfrom rural areas as compared to urban areas (Stuetz,et.al.,2001).The reason for the huge difference is the difference in womenbehaviors. In an example, urban areas women, rarely come into contactwith pesticides, when compared to rural areas women.

Thisfact subjects rural areas women be at risk of being affected by thepesticides, a comparison to this, women in urban areas get contact tohigh concentration of the chemicals through foods grown in ruralareas, this points out a single contamination point as compared torural areas women who directly get to ne in contact with thechemicals equally ingesting contaminated foods (Nakata,et.al.,2002).

OCPsare evident to be having increasing environmental effects and apersistence that high in fatty foods and in human beings adiposetissues (Morgan &amp Roan, 2013). Organo-chlorine contamination andother human milk components reveal the projected effects pesticideresidue chemicals on human life through breastfeeding mothers. Havingplaced human milk on top of the food chain signifies a major coursetowards elimination of OCPs through lactating women (Stehrâ€,2008).

References

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