Predictors of Parenting Stress in a Diverse Sample of Parents of Early

Predictorsof Parenting Stress in a Diverse Sample of Parents of EarlyAdolescents in High-Risk Communities: Worksheet 3


Predictorsof Parenting Stress in a Diverse Sample of Parents of EarlyAdolescents in High-Risk Communities: Worksheet 3

Mainresults of the study

Thestudy indicates that there is a positive association between the typeof behavior adopted by children and parental stress. The multipleregression analysis indicated that children factors (including age,problem behaviors, and social skills) explain about 42 % of changesin the parenting stress. However, problem behavior and social skillsthe young adolescents contribute more towards parental stresscompared to their age. Parental factors explain only about 9 % of thechanges in the parental stress. Out of all parental variables(including race, gender, and health status) considered in the study,only the health status was significantly associated with parentalstress. The study also indicated that contextual factors (includingfamily conflict, structure, involvement, cohesion, parent education,social support, and income) explain about 39 % of variations inparental stress. However, only the family involvement, familyconflict, and parent education were significantly associated withvariations in parental stress.

Howthe hypothesis was supported

Scientificstudies, similar to the one covered in the article, derive theirpredictions from well-crafted hypotheses about the findings of somefuture experiments, which are then performed to determine whetherthey support earlier predictions. Hypothesis in the present study wassupported in two ways. First, the three sets of hypothesis aresupported through a carefully crafted experimentation. This meansthat the experimentation was based on a scientific model (ParentingStress Index), standard measurement tools (including the Adult FamilyStrengthening Base-line Survey, and a defined set of procedures.Secondly, the three of hypotheses was supported through a multiplelines of evidence. For example, the data obtained from the study isanalyzed in multiple regression and other statistical methods (suchas ANOVA), all of which contribute towards the determination of thecorrectness of the pre-determined hypothesis. This allowed theresearchers to confirm the three hypotheses.

Controlof extraneous variables

Althougheffective control of extraneous variables is a challenge, there arethree factors indicating that the researchers in the present studyused appropriate measures to control these variables. First, bothcontrol and intervention groups were subjected to similar conditions.For example, all parents taking part in the study were giveninstructions to provide responses that were specific to theirchildren who were also taking part in the study. This ensured thatall the study participants came in with the same pre-knowledge andcould only give the required information. Secondly, random splittingof the study samples was an appropriate strategy adopted to equalizeerrors associated with extraneous variables. Although randomassignment of the study samples in the control and interventiongroups does not decrease errors associated with extraneous variables,it ensures that the errors are equally distributed between the twogroups.

Howthe authors enhanced internal validity

Theauthors used two approaches to enhance the internal validity of thestudy. First, the random assignment of the study samples into theintervention and control groups respectively ensured that they areequivalent. This is because random assignment of subjects into theirrespective groups reduces the probability of systemic errorsoccurring. Secondly, the authors used the double-blind approach toenhance the internal validity of the study. This means that both thestudy participants and the authors did not know what each of thegroups represented. This reduced demand characteristics including theattempt by parents to respond in certain ways that they think is whatwould be expected. The double-blind approach also reduced theprobability of the experimenter expressing bias to any of the groups.This was further reinforced through the random assignment.

Implicationsof the study for the clinical practice

Thefindings reported in the article have three major implications forthe clinical practice. First, the study indicates that there is astrong relationship between parenting stress and child behavior,which means that clinicians can address the behavior of earlyadolescents as an effective way of treating stress among parents.This is based on the fact that treating stress and anxiety among theparents of these children address the symptoms, leaving bad behaviorof the adolescent, which is the underlying cause of the parent’sstress.

Secondly,the study revealed that parents with poor health and single parentsare at a higher risk of suffering from parenting stress than theircounterpart healthy and married parents. This means that cliniciansshould focus on educating the two categories of parents on the bestparenting practices in order to reduce their risk of suffering fromstress. For example, clinicians can establish social networks throughwhich the self efficacy and parenting skills can be enhanced.

Third,although the study does not indicate a strong relationship betweenparenting stress and the age of the children, clinicians should focuson equipping parents with the suitable parenting skills. This willhelp them address challenges associated with changes in the age oftheir children.


Thestudy has two major limitations. First, the authors used aself-reported methodology, which reduced the possibility of rulingout the source of variations especially for the significant results.Secondly, the authors used a cross-sectional study design, whichlimited their ability to infer causality. This means that thecross-sectional design made it difficult to establish the cause andeffect relationship between independent and depend variables withclarity.


Anderson,S. (2008). Predictors of parenting stress in a diverse sample ofparents of early adolescents in high-risk communities. NursingResearch,57 (5), 340-350.