Research Paper Statistics

RESEARCH PAPER STATISTICS 26

ResearchPaper Statistics

ExecutiveSummary

Theissue of human trafficking exists in almost every corner of theglobe. Regardless of the gender or age of a person, any individualcan be trafficked. This implies that women, men and children can betrafficked. Individuals are usually trafficked for the purpose of sexexploitation, labor exploitation, or even for their organs (Salt &ampJeremy, 1997). Human trafficking can be viewed as the traditionalslavery. Although there are more than 300 treaties banning slavery inthe globe, human trafficking is still on the increase and needs to beeliminated since it is against human rights. The aim of this paper isto determine whether poverty, unemployment and education have aninfluence on human trafficking. ANOVA test will be used in testingthe hypotheses. In carrying out the hypotheses, the followingcountries will be used India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria, Ethiopia,Russia, Thailand, Democratic Republic of Congo, Myanmar, andBangladesh. The finding of the research is that unemployment, povertyand education do not influence human trafficking the hypotheses inthis paper are accepted. A limitation for this research is lack ofdata availability for individuals that have been trafficked, or inmodern slavery per country. In some cases, the data for individualsin modern slavery may not reflect the actual number because it hasbeen difficult to trace trafficked individuals. Future research mayhave sufficient and accurate data on individuals in modern slaverythat may be used in carrying out further research in the topic.

Humantrafficking has become a global issue since countries, all over theglobe, are experiencing human trafficking. According to the U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, human trafficking has becomethe swiftest growing and second largest criminal business in theglobe today it is seconded by drug trafficking and connected withillegal arms. Human trafficking can be viewed as modern slavery sinceit shares a common notion with the historic conception of slaverysince in both, an individual’s life, fortune and liberty are underthe absolute control of another person, and a person can be bought,sold, or used according to the will of the owner. Because of thecovert nature of the human trafficking crime, lack of awareness andfunding for the concern, it is cumbersome to obtain accuratestatistics on the issue however, estimates are available (Nagle,2008). The National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC), whichis operated by Polaris, has been working with local partners since2007 to aid tens of thousands of trafficked in connecting with theservices and help they need. Report from Polaris indicates that 85%of sex trafficking cases, reference women as victims and 40% of labortrafficking cases can be referenced to men in the United States.

Humantrafficking has been connected with local gangs, governmentcorruption, violations of immigration and labor codes, transnationalcriminal organizations and small criminal networks (Richard, 1999U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2006). In order fortrafficking to exist, it does not need to transport individuals tointernational boundaries or other boundaries trafficking can stillexist within a confined boundary such as a county or a country. Thereexists more than 300 treaties banning slavery in the globe however,human trafficking is still on the rise (Chuang, 2006 Nagle, 2008Skinner, 2009).

Accordingto Polaris Project (2014) Obokata (2005) Banks &amp Kyckelhahn(2011), rape, abuse and neglect are commonplace. Hundreds ofthousands of individuals are forced into sex, labor, or/and organtrafficking annually (Polaris Project, 2014). It is projected that600,000 – 800,000 individuals are trafficked across bordersglobally, out of which, 50% comprise children and 80% are women andgirls (Polaris Project, 2014). The estimates of those trafficked toand within the United States are around 15,000 -100,000 individualsdepending on the definition of human trafficking used in themeasurement (Chacon, 2006 Obokata, 2005 Polaris Project, 2014).There is a need of implementing strict laws that will help in curbingthe issue of human trafficking in order to prevent the crime fromescalating further and protecting the human rights.

Threehypotheses will be tested in this assignment these will include thefollowing: poverty has no influence on human trafficking, educationhas no influence on human trafficking, and employment does not haveinfluence on human trafficking. The dependent variable to be usedwill be human trafficking, while the independent variables would bepoverty, education and unemployment. A list of 10 countries will beused in the analysis these include India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria,Ethiopia, Russia, Thailand, Democratic Republic of Congo, Myanmar,and Bangladesh. The research method that will be used in testing thehypotheses entails the ANOVA testing. The reason for choosing thismethod is because one variable is continuous while the others arenominal, observations are independent, and variables are normallydistributed. Post-hoc testing will be used in testing statisticaldifference.

Theresearch on the issue of human trafficking is critical to publicadministration because it can help in coming up with policies thatcan help in curbing human trafficking. For example, throughidentifying the push factors that lead to human trafficking, it ispossible to come up with policy recommendations that can be appliedin making policies that eliminate the push factors, leading to theelimination of human trafficking.

LiteratureReview

In2000, the international community came up with and agreed on thedefinition for human trafficking, which can be found in article 3 ofthe United Nations Protocol thus, according to the United Nations,“human trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, transfer,harboring or receipt of individuals, through the use of threat, forceor other forms of coercion, of abduction, fraud, deception, abuse ofpower or a position of vulnerability or giving or receiving ofpayments or benefits in achieving the consent of an individual havingcontrol over another individual, for the purpose of exploitation”(U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2006. Pp 2). In this case,exploitation will include, at least, the exploitation of theprostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, slaveryor actions similar to slavery, forced labor or services, servitude orthe removal of organs (Europol, 2005). On the other hand, the U.S.Congress defines and classifies human trafficking into two: labortrafficking and sex trafficking. Sex trafficking is where acommercial sex act becomes induced through fraud, force, or coercion,or where the individual induced to do such an act has not attained 18years old. Alternatively, labor trafficking entails “therecruitment, harboring, transport provision, or obtaining of anindividual for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, orcoercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude,peonage, debt bondage, or slavery” (U.S. Government AccountabilityOffice, 2006. Pp 2). However, human trafficking is not limited tolabor and sex only. Because of the shortage of organs in the West,there has been an explosion of organ trafficking and organ tourism(Budiani-Saberi &amp Delmonico, 2008). Similar to human labor andsex trafficking, organ trafficking entails “the recruitment,transport, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of thethreat or use of force or other forms of coercion of abduction, offraud, of deception, of the control over another person, for thepurpose of exploitation by the removal of organs, tissues or sellsfor transplantation” (Budiani-Saberi &amp Delmonico, 2008, para4). The most vulnerable portions of the population, such as the pooror uneducated, are the usual targets of organ trafficking(Budiani-Saberi &amp Delmonico, 2008). Like those sex and labortrafficked, the organ becomes the commodity, the financial gain, thefocus, with little regard for the wellbeing of the donor(Budiani-Saberi &amp Delmonico, 2008). There are generally twoscenarios around organ trafficking Victims are promised financialrewards for their organ, or the organ is taken from them leading tomorbidity and more often mortality (Budiani-Saberi &amp Delmonico,2008).

Accordingto U.S. Department of State (2007), the prevalence of humantrafficking worldwide and nationally has not been well developed,which has made estimates to vary and change widely and significantlyover time. The U.S. State Department has projected that approximately600,000 to 800,000 individuals are trafficked annually acrossinternational borders globally and around half of these individualsare below 18 years old (U.S. Department of State, 2007). Besides, theinternational Labor Organization has projected that at any giventime, 12.3 million individuals are in forced labor, forced childlabor, bonded labor, involuntary servitude, and sexual servitude.Other estimates of worldwide labor exploitation range from 4 millionto 27 million (U.S. Department of State, 2007). The problem stated inthis article concerns the issue of human trafficking and the Violenceprotection act of 2000. The purpose of this article is to indicatethat although the United States is a destination and transitdestination for human trafficking, the government is committed tocombating trafficking both locally and abroad. Through thetrafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, the U.S. government iscapable of providing services to the trafficking victims (U.S.Department of State, 2007). The government recognizes the need ofsustaining and enhancing efforts so as to achieve the objectives andgoals of the Act. The article further stipulates that the U.S.government has assisted other countries in enacting anti-traffickinglegislation and setting-up of anti-trafficking police units (U.S.Department of State, 2007). The method used in gathering data in thisarticle entails the use of case study method this can be concludedfrom the different research cases that have offered information inthis article. The U.S. government collected information fromdifferent case studies done and presented the information in thisarticle. The findings and conclusion of this article is that the U.S.government is making efforts to combat trafficking of persons bothnationally and internationally through the development of thetrafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000. I think this article isvalid in providing the information concerning human trafficking sinceit has used other resources in providing the information.Furthermore, the body concerned with providing this information isentrusted with research, which implies that the information offeredconcerning human trafficking is valid. From the literature in thisarticle on human trafficking, it is clear that the research topic isof significant since the U.S. government is indicated to enforce thetrafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 in combating the issue oftrafficking both nationally and internationally. In case it was notsignificant, the governments could have ignored the call on fightinghuman trafficking.

Polaris2014 report provides that human trafficking is a reality in theUnited States. According to the report, sex trafficking in the UnitedStates is common in online escort services, brothels that aredisguised as spas or massage businesses, residential brothels, andstreet prostitution (Polaris, 2014). Similarly, labor trafficking inthe United States has been found in large farms, domestic servitudesituations, carnivals, and restaurants among other places. The reportfurther argues that trafficking victims are frequently enticedthrough force promises of having a lucrative job, education,stability, or loving association. In the United States, traffickingvictims may be women or men, children or adults, U.S. citizens orforeign nationals (Polaris, 2014). Besides, the report indicates thatthe victims share the characteristic of vulnerability however, theyhave varied ethnic backgrounds, educational levels, andsocio-economic backgrounds. In addition, the report provides thattraffickers and their victims usually share same ethnic, national, orcultural background in order to permit trafficker in betterunderstanding and exploiting vulnerabilities of the victims that theytarget. The report concludes that human trafficking is a reality inthe United States and women, men and children can be victims(Polaris, 2014). Polaris being a body concerned with collectingstatistics concerning trafficked victims, it is likely to providefirst hand information. This makes the information provided in thearticle valid. The report provides various aspects concerning humantrafficking that indicates that the research topic is of importance.For instance, the report provides that traffickers use threats,violence, debt bondage, and deception in trapping victims. Thisoffers a good background of traffickers.

Thefollowing are the three most typical immigration traffickingscenarios

1.The victim is taken from their home and forced into trafficking flowsand smuggled across borders

2.The immigrant pays someone to smuggle them into the United States andupon arrival, find themselves in forced labor or sex trafficking

3.An immigrant comes into the United States legally on a visa and overstays the visa after finding themselves coerced into being trafficked

Inthe three scenarios, current laws can criminalize the victims. Withinthe United States alone, victims go unidentified and traffickers gounconvicted (Chacon, 2006). Most states continue to prosecute sextrafficking victims like prostitutes and immigrants like criminals. “The laws may be on the books, but a February 2009 report releasedby the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) found that amajority of the 155 countries studied had never registered a singletrafficking conviction” (Skinner, 2009, p. 34).

Theeconomic component of profitability and scarcity, which fuel supplyand demand of human trafficking are also being addressed byresearchers. Janie Chuang seeks to understand the socioeconomiccauses of human trafficking and the reluctance in addressingunderlying causes and issues. In her research, Chuang finds out thattrafficking prevalence is usually driven by globalization and labormigration associated with modern socioeconomic tendencies (Chuang,2014). Although the current responses to trafficking seek toprosecute the traffickers and protect trafficked victims in anattempt to prevent trafficking, little emphasis is placed on the corecauses. The economic disparities amid the affluent and the poor dueto globalization have resulted into an insurgence in migrants seekingemployment across borders. Subsequently, they become more vulnerableto traffickers (Jordan, 2004 Jones et al, 2007 Chuang, 2004).According to Chuang (2014), governments have not yet looked at thiswider perspective and tend to perceive and respond trafficking like acriminal justice issue. Although governments have respondedaggressively to the crimes, developed laws, and spent heavily, therehas not been a substantial reduction of trafficked individualsworldwide (Chuang, 2014). Effective policies need to target thesocioeconomic trends, which cause people to consider taking dangerousmigratory jobs. Chuang suggests a counter-trafficking strategy, whichincludes consideration of the social, cultural, and economicviolations that fuel human trafficking (Chuang, 2014).

Theissue of globalization is also supported by Nagle to contribute tothe rising incidences of human trafficking. According to Nagle(2008), “Humantrafficking benefits from the crucial engines of globalization thesupply and demand of transportable commodities, as well as, from thetransfer of capital, the opening of boarders, and trade deregulation”(Nagle, 2008 pg. 137). The supply and demand have generated afavorable environment for cheap or free labor, discriminatorymarkets, weak or no laws protecting citizens or immigrants fromenslavement. Lack of morality, demand for sex, prevalent corruption,inconsistent policies, and strengthened crime rings entail the largersocietal problem (Nagle, 2008).

Mostscholars claim that human trafficking entails a criminal justiceissue (Obokata, 2005). Since most countries adhere to the UNTrafficking Protocol definition, most researchers stress thesignificance of understanding the association between trafficking andsmuggling (Nagle, 2008 Obokata, 2005). Human trafficking entails acrime against humanity and traffickers must not escape internationallaws and justice. In combating human trafficking, countries, states,and regions need to coordinate and cooperate (Obokata, 2005).Corruption is perceived as a factor that hinders domestic andinternational policies and responses on human trafficking. Publicofficials, law enforcement officials, and those in criminal justiceare the major corrupted actors that hinder the implementation ofhuman trafficking policies and responses (Skrivankova &amp Dell,2013).

TheInternational entities for migration have been actively working since1997 to counter human trafficking, and have applied 500 projects in85 nations. The Report describes the difficulties in obtaining datatracking due to the illegal nature, lack of legislation in manycountries, victims fear or failure to report, and lack of governmentsto disclose data (US State Dept, 2013). The database holdsinformation on 13,809 victims from more than 85 countries and storessocioeconomic, trafficker routes, exploitative patterns, andre-trafficking instance profiles (U.S. Dept. of State, 2013). Modern day slavery has become a product of technology, politics, andeconomic conditions all fed by globalization (Jones et al., 2007Jordan, 2004 Kapstein, 2006). “The current system offers too manyincentives to criminals and outlaw states to market humans andpromises too little in the way of sanctions” (Kapstein, 2006, p.103). 80% of slaves are female and 50% are under the age of 18 yearsold (Kapstein, 2006). We must get to the root cause of humantrafficking in order to stop this humanitarian crisis of epicproportions.

ThePolaris Project ranks states according to anti-traffickinglegislation based on protection of victims, criminal convictions, andefforts to educate and work with law enforcement (Polaris Project,2013). Tennessee has 13 pieces of human trafficking legislation thathave been put forward in an attempt to curb human trafficking. However, there is little to suggest that the number of statelegislation is improving the problem (Polaris Project, 2014). Therecontinues to be little data to show how the legislation is impactingthe counter human trafficking efforts for better, but much more onhow it is impacting it for worse by exclusion of so many victims(Chacon, 2006 Polaris Project, 2014).

Humantrafficking is a reality in Tennessee and involves both adults andchildren. According to the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation,approximately 1000 children are trafficked every year for sex andlabor. 80% of the children trafficked are female. In most cases,adults being trafficked are offered jobs that seem legitimate, butlater turn out to be slavery and the wage that is promised turns tobe a lie (U.S. Dept. of Justice, 2006). Tennessee has been veryproactive in combating human trafficking. The state enacted a HumanTrafficking Task Force HB 919/ SB 1036 (TBI, 2013). Tennessee alsohas passed thirteen pieces of legislation to protect men, women, andchildren from sexual exploitation. There are increasing efforts tocreate and support recovery programs, legislation, and lawenforcement awareness trafficked persons (TBI, 2013). The PolarisProject is the national U.S. hotline committed to ending humantrafficking. All too often, human trafficking is associated withforeign countries and prostitution (Polaris Project, 2013). According to the 2013 TN Department of Human Services TraffickingReport, TN lacks in survivor programs, rehabilitation centers, andaid (DHS, 2013). New legislation failed in the 108thTGA, but is said to come up again next year, according to TBIinvestigator Pam Beck (TGA, 2014).

Demandand supply of trafficking are the key factors that drive humantrafficking. The demand part of trafficking may include brothel orsweatshop owners, clients for sex workers, people hiring domesticservants, and farmers. These are usually neglected by programspreventing trafficking, but tend to focus on activities that are onthe supply side with an aim of curtailing it (Skinner, 2009).Although some of these individuals recognize the mistreatment thatoccurs, most of them are ignorant to the ruthless abuse andexploitation associated with trafficking and do not know that most ofthe trafficking victims never choose the lifestyle, but becomecoerced or forced into it. In the global market, trafficking ofvictims is usually determined by the purchasing power of the peoplein the nations of destination. Customers in high income countriesusually pay a higher value for the non-tradable services such assexual services compared to poor countries. The higher prices profitbrothel owners, which make them exploit victims in high incomecountries. The demand for trafficking is usually driven by theincidence of prostitution, price, and openness of the country.According to Farley &amp Ugarte (2003), there is a positiverelationship amid the number of trafficking victims demanded andprostitution incidence. When the level of prostitution rises, thenumber of trafficked victims demanded for prostitution also rises.

Corruptionalso plays a critical role in human trafficking a high amount ofcorruption will provide traffickers with an easy moment in recruitingvictims for exploitation. For instance, the Soviet Union collapse andaugmented personal mobility in the global age has been capable offacilitating the growth of trafficking for the past decade (Shelley,2003). Regional conflicts have led to the compounding of the problemresulting to most victims being susceptible to human trafficking. Forexample, corruption and female youth unemployment are a subsequent ofsuch political and economic developments.

Hypotheses

Thefollowing hypotheses will be posited in this paper

1.Poverty and human trafficking – in this hypothesis, the influenceof poverty on human trafficking would be determined. The nullhypothesis to be tested is whether poverty does not have an influenceon human trafficking. The null and alternative hypotheses are asstated below

H0–Poverty does not influence human trafficking

HA-poverty influences human trafficking

2.Influence of education level on human trafficking – in this case,the influence of education level on human trafficking would beestablished. The null and alternative hypotheses would be stated asfollows

H0– education level does not influence human trafficking

HA–education level influences human trafficking

3.Influence of unemployment on human trafficking – in this case, theinfluence of unemployment on human trafficking would be determined.The following are null and alternative hypotheses statements

H0– unemployment does not influence human trafficking

HA– unemployment influences human trafficking

Data

Intesting the hypotheses in this paper, data from the World Bankconcerning unemployment, poverty, and education level will be used.For the poverty data, GDP per capita will be considered. All the datawill be for 2013. 10 countries will be used in testing thehypotheses this will be in regard to the top 10 countries with ahigh number of individuals in modern slavery according to the GlobalSlavery Index India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Russia,Thailand, Democratic Republic of Congo, Myanmar, and Bangladesh.

DependentVariable

Humantrafficking is the dependent variable this will not change for allthe hypotheses tested in this paper. Human trafficking data will befrom 10 countries, which include India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria,Ethiopia, Russia, Thailand, Democratic Republic of Congo, Myanmar,and Bangladesh. The data showing the number of individuals in modernslavery will be used to show the number of trafficked victims in the10 countries. The following is the data for the 10 countries

India

13,956,010

China

2,949,243

Pakistan

2,127,132

Nigeria

701,032

Ethiopia

651,110

Russia

516,217

Thailand

472,811

Democratic Republic of Congo

462,327

Myanmar

384,037

Bangladesh

343,192

IndependentVariable – Hypothesis 1

Theindependent variable for hypothesis 1 is poverty. Poverty can beconsidered as the inability to secure basic commodities due to lackof resources. It has been speculated that lack of resources may makeindividuals become more vulnerable to trafficking. This raises theneed for testing whether the speculation is true. The independentvariable represents individuals that lack resources for securingbasic commodities. The independent variable will utilize a data of 10countries India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Russia,Thailand, Democratic Republic of Congo, Myanmar, and Bangladesh. Inorder to indicate poverty in the 10 countries, GDP per capita will beused as the measure of poverty the GDP per capita is expressed indollars for uniformity. The data for the 10 countries is as follows

India

1499

China

6807

Pakistan

1299

Nigeria

3006

Ethiopia

498

Russia

14612

Thailand

5779

Democratic Republic of Congo

3172

Myanmar

1764

Bangladesh

829

Duringthe hypothesis testing, the data for poverty from the 10 countrieswould be compared to that of the number of individuals in modernslavery so as to determine whether poverty has a relation withindividuals in modern slavery.

IndependentVariable – Hypothesis 2

Theindependent variable for hypothesis 2 will be education. In thiscase, education is considered in terms of basic education. The basiceducation entails the education level, where individuals have thecapacity to comprehend different issues within the society. Thus, onemust go to school in order to acquire the basic education. Thisvariable represents the number of individuals that lack basiceducation implying that they have never attended school. There is aneed to test the hypothesis that education does not influence humantrafficking since it has been speculated to have some impact on humantrafficking. Testing the hypothesis will provide a true view of theimpact of education on trafficking. The data for the independentvariable will come from 10 countries. The measure for education inthe 10 countries would be literacy rates the following data showsthe literacy rates for the ten countries:

India

74.4%

China

95.1%

Pakistan

55%

Nigeria

61.3%

Ethiopia

39%

Russia

99.7%

Thailand

93.5%

Democratic Republic of Congo

66.8%

Myanmar

95.1%

Bangladesh

55.7%

Duringthe hypothesis testing, the data for education from the 10 countrieswould be compared to that of the number of individuals in modernslavery so as to determine whether education has a relation withindividuals in modern slavery.

IndependentVariable – Hypothesis 3

Theindependent variable for this hypothesis is unemployment.Unemployment is the situation where, one is in a position to work,but he/she does not have any job that can bring income to his/herhousehold. In this case, this variable represents the number ofindividuals that do not have any job that can bring income to his/herhousehold. The hypothesis to be tested in this case will determinewhether unemployment does not influence human trafficking. The datafor the independent variable will be from 10 countries. Besides, themeasure for unemployment in this case would be unemployment rate thefollowing is the data from 10 countries that indicate the levels ofunemployment:

India

8.8%

China

4.1%

Pakistan

5.17%

Nigeria

23%

Ethiopia

17.5%

Russia

5.5%

Thailand

0.7%

Democratic Republic of Congo

46.1%

Myanmar

4.02%

Bangladesh

4.53%

Duringthe hypothesis testing, the data for unemployment from the 10countries would be compared to that of the number of individuals inmodern slavery so as to determine whether unemployment has a relationwith individuals in modern slavery.

Method

Theresearch method that will be used in testing the hypotheses entailsthe ANOVA testing. The reason for choosing this method is because onevariable is continuous while the others are nominal, observations areindependent, and variables are normally distributed. Post-hoc testingwill be used in testing statistical difference.

Povertyand Human Trafficking

Anova: Single Factor

SUMMARY

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

Column 1

10

39265

3926.5

18460842

Column 2

10

22563111

2256311

1.766E+13

ANOVA

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

Between Groups

2.54E+13

1

2.54E+13

2.8722188

0.107351

4.413873

Within Groups

1.59E+14

18

8.83E+12

Total

1.84E+14

19

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

Inthis case, F calculated &lt F critical

2.8722188&lt 4.413873

SinceF calc &lt F crit, then

H0is accepted and HAis rejected

Conclusion:poverty does not influence human trafficking

Educationand Human Trafficking

Anova: Single Factor

SUMMARY

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

Column 1

10

22563111

2256311

1.766E+13

Column 2

10

737.6

73.76

443.95156

ANOVA

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

Between Groups

2.55E+13

1

2.55E+13

2.8820561

0.106793

4.413873

Within Groups

1.59E+14

18

8.83E+12

Total

1.84E+14

19

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

Inthis case, F calculated &lt F critical

2.8820561&lt4.413873

SinceF calc &lt F crit, then

H0is accepted and HAis rejected

Conclusion:education level does not influence human trafficking

Unemploymentand Human Trafficking

Anova: Single Factor

SUMMARY

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

Column 1

10

22563111

2256311

1.766E+13

Column 2

10

119.42

11.942

191.41628

ANOVA

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

Between Groups

2.55E+13

1

2.55E+13

2.8822141

0.106784

4.413873

Within Groups

1.59E+14

18

8.83E+12

Total

1.84E+14

19

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

&nbsp

Fcalculated &lt F critical

2.8822141&lt4.413873

SinceF calc &lt F crit, then

H0is accepted and HAis rejected

Conclusion:unemployment level does not influence human trafficking

Findings

Fromthe tests, it is apparent that all the F values are less than the Fcritical values for all the hypotheses. Thus, all the null hypotheseshold for the data sets in this research. That is to say that poverty,education, and unemployment do not have an influence on humantrafficking. A country may have high incidences of human trafficking,but the unemployment rate in the country may be low. The same caseapplies to education level and poverty. The Bonferroni’s pairwisecomparison that was conducted with a familywise α = .0125 and α =.05 indicated that there was no significant difference amid poverty,unemployment and education in influencing human trafficking. The pvalues of the hypotheses tests indicate that there are no statisticaldifferences amid the three variables. This emanates from the logicthat the p values are high from all the three hypotheses tests highp values are an indication that the null hypotheses in this study aresupported. From all the tests, the p values are high because for allthe tests, p values are greater than 0.1. From the tests carried out,the p value (0.107351) for hypothesis 1 indicates that there is nostatistical significance of poverty in influencing human trafficking,while the p value (0.106793) for hypothesis 2 indicates that there isno statistical significance of education in influencing humantrafficking. Alternatively, the p value (0.106784)for hypothesis 3 indicates that there is no statistical significanceof unemployment in influencing human trafficking. From hypothesis 1,the P value is large implying that the null hypothesis will beaccepted while the alternative hypothesis is rejected. Besides, forhypotheses 2 and 3, the P values are also high indicating that thenull hypotheses will be accepted while the alternative hypotheses arerejected.

Limitations

Alimitation in the testing of hypotheses entails the use of 10countries in generalizing whether poverty, education and unemploymenthave an influence on human trafficking. The results may change incase a vast number of countries are used. For example, the resultsmay remain the same or change slightly with the use of 100 countries.However, the problem is that it was not possible to have a largenumber of countries because data for most countries do not exist onthe number of individuals that are in modern slavery. Provision ofmore data on individuals in modern slavery could help in obtaining amore comprehensive result.

Conclusion

Humantrafficking has become a global issue since countries, all over theglobe, are experiencing human trafficking. According to the U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, human trafficking has becomethe swiftest growing and second largest criminal business in theglobe today it is seconded by drug trafficking and connected withillegal arms. In order for trafficking to exist, it does not need totransport individuals to international boundaries or otherboundaries trafficking can still exist within a confined boundarysuch as a county or a country. There exists more than 300 treatiesbanning slavery in the globe however, human trafficking is still onthe rise (Chuang, 2006 Nagle, 2008 Skinner, 2009). Currently, theglobe still operates under various definitions of slavery instead ofjust one this has led to complications of domestic and internationalcounter efforts.

Thereare several weaknesses in the data estimates and reporting. According to the Department of State’s TIP Report, it is estimatedthat 27 million are trafficked worldwide annually (Polaris, 2014UNODC, 2014). However, the International Labor Organizationestimates 2.4 million victims are trafficked annually. The reasonfor the variation in victim estimates relates to definitions ofslavery, which impacts how victims are identified and assisted(Chuang, 2006 ILO, 2014 UNODC, 201). Under the narrow UN Protocoldefinition, the UN estimates approximately 4 million victims annually(UNODC, 2014 Polaris Project, 2014), but according to Free theSlaves broader definition, there are 27 million victims under broaddefinitions of trafficking and slavery (Polaris Project, 2014). Thenature of human trafficking makes it difficult for the availabilityof data having an accurate number of individuals that have beentrafficked. The data available for human trafficking victims havebeen traced through the calls made by the trafficked victims seekingassistance from different organizations. Besides, the available datacome from surveys carried out by various bodies. There is alimitation in obtaining an accurate data since some of the traffickedvictims never come to the open or have not yet been identified astrafficked victims.

TheU.S. State Department has projected that approximately 600,000 to800,000 individuals are trafficked annually across internationalborders globally and approximately half of these individuals arebelow 18 years old (U.S.Department of State, 2007).Besides, the international Labor Organization has projected that atany given time, 12.3 million individuals are in forced labor, forcedchild labor, bonded labor, involuntary servitude, and sexualservitude. Otherestimates of worldwide labor exploitation range from 4 million to 27million (U.S. Department of State, 2007). Between244,000 and 325,000 American youths are at risk of sexualexploitation and an estimate of 199,000 incidents of sexualexploitation of minors occur annually in the United States (Estes &ampWeiner, 2001).

Fromthe hypotheses tested in this research, there is an indication thatunemployment, education and poverty do not have any statisticaldifference in relation to human trafficking. The research indicatedthat all the three factors do not influence human trafficking. Fromthe tests carried out, the p value (0.107351) for hypothesis 1indicates that there is no statistical significance of poverty ininfluencing human trafficking, while the p value (0.106793) forhypothesis 2 indicates that there is no statistical significance ofeducation in influencing human trafficking. Alternatively, the pvalue (0.106784)for hypothesis 3 indicates that there is no statistical significanceof unemployment in influencing human trafficking.

References

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