Research Paper Statistics

ResearchPaper Statistics

Abstract/Executive summary

Humantrafficking is a criminal offence that has taken root world over andthrough recent studies and reports, it is envisaged to have becomethe second largest criminal industry in the world over the past twodecades [ CITATION Pol14 l 1033 ]. It is a situation where a male or female regardless of age, isexploited by an individual, organization or organized group networksfor commercial purposes. This has also been extended to the use ofparts or organs of the body such that the organs are traffickedinstead of the whole human being. Victims of human trafficking arecalled modern day slaves and are treated as commodities who endureunthinkable human rights violation [ CITATION CIA14 l 1033 ]. They are used mainly for sex and labor but as the illegal trade goeson, new methods of human exploitation can still be developed. Thosetrafficked persons or individuals can be enslaved right in their ownhomes, villages, countries and can also be moved across the bordersand around the world in trafficking flows operated by a combinationof individuals and organized groups. International traffickingstatistics indicate that human the problem is now global and needs tobe addressed by countries and states world over. Therefore, thepurpose or aim of this research paper is to:

  1. Highlight the problem and create awareness on some of the current human trafficking issues in the United States.

  2. Analyze some statistical data in the United States concerning human trafficking

Suchstatistics or data will enable to researcher to make informeddecisions on the increase of human trafficking in the US. The studywill also give some basis for which further research can beconducted, and solutions to the problem developed to curtail moderntime slavery. However, limitations of this study emanate from thenature of human trafficking crime which is highly under cover. Victims of human trafficking are not easily identified and thereforedata collection will be equally challenging. Governments in manycountries are not keen on tracking and unearthing traffickers withinthe country and across borders to other countries. Migration ofpeople presents a good human trafficking avenue and it is importantfor governments to develop mechanisms of fighting these crimesagainst humanity particularly in children.

Underthe Universal Declaration of Human Rights, human trafficking isprohibited and outlawed. A report by the National Conference of StateLegislatures states that human trafficking is the control andexploitation of people for profit [ CITATION NCS14 l 1033 ].Itis unthinkable to imagine that human beings have retrogressed totrading in their own selves and parts of their bodies for whateverprofit that they make. Under the United States federal law, victimsof human trafficking include children involved in the sex trade,adults age 18 or over who are coerced or deceived into commercial sexacts and anyone compelled into forced labor [ CITATION NCS14 l 1033 ]. Theseare the most common forms of trafficking in persons but there aremany other hidden forms in which persons are trafficked with orwithout consenting. According to the Criminal Investigations Agency(CIA), Traffickingin persons is modern-day slavery, involving victims who are forced,defrauded, or coerced into labor or sexual exploitation [ CITATION CIA14 l 1033 ].The International Labor Organization (ILO), the UN agency chargedwith addressing labor standards, employment, and social protectionissues, estimates that 12.3 million people worldwide are enslaved inforced labor, bonded labor, forced child labor, sexual servitude, andinvoluntary servitude at any given time[ CITATION CIA14 l 1033 ].TheCIA further states that human trafficking is a multi-dimensionalthreat, depriving people of their human rights and freedoms, riskingglobal health, promoting social breakdown, inhibiting development bydepriving countries of their human capital, and helping fuel thegrowth of organized crime. In 2000, the US Congress passed theTrafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA), reauthorized in 2003 and2005, which provides tools for the US to combat trafficking inpersons. It also categorizes countries and state in three tiersaccording to how the country or state is implementing laws orprograms aimed at fighting the crime. More of these laws need to belegislated and passed by all to protect children who are the mostvulnerable group in the society. The current situation is thatapproximately800,000 people, mostly women and children, are trafficked annuallyacross national borders, not including the millions who aretrafficked within their own countries. Reports indicate that atleast 80% of the victims are female and up to 50% are minors. 75% ofall victims are trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation andalmost two-thirds of the global victims are traffickedintra-regionally [ CITATION CIA14 l 1033 ]. Polaris project which deals with trafficking in persons incollaboration with other government agencies is the main source ofour data. The data collected depended mainly on responses and callsfrom individuals and organizations that are fighting this humancriminal injustice.

Reportsindicate that human sex and trafficking, also referred to as slaveryor modern day slavery has become a multibillion dollar industryexceeding profits estimated at $32 to $43.3 billion annually fortraffickers [ CITATION Bel05 l 1033 ]. Withsuch profits raked from a crime that has not been well contained,traffickers will do all in their means to ensure the illegal tradegoes on and becomes even more sophisticated. There must be a demandfor these criminal acts that drives traffickers to engage in thisillegal business. The US government needs to take preventive andlegal measures against traffickers and give or share the necessaryreports and information about human trafficking to its states andother anti human trafficking agencies. Future actions against humantrafficking will rely on statistical data collected now. It is alsonecessary to set up funds for fighting the crime within and acrossthe borders hence making it a multinational issue. This researchpaper aims at analyzing some of the statistics available at themoment on human trafficking particularly in the United States. Thepaper will rely on

  • Data collected by the national agencies in the US.

  • Data from International Agencies attached to the United Nations office operating in the US.

Hypotheses

TheUnited States set up Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) in2000 to combat this crime and set up standards by which otherstakeholders can be rated for compliance. We hypothesize that:

  1. There is a significant decrease in convictions of human trafficking cases in the United over the past three years.

Thenull hypothesis is that convictions on human trafficking cases in theUS have did not decrease over the past three years.

  1. Looking at trafficking for calls, we hypothesize that there has been an increase in the number of calls on human trafficking in the US in the past three years.

Thenull hypothesis is that there is no increase in human traffickingcalls for in the US in the past three years.

  1. The enactment of TVPA rules in convictions has resulted in a decrease in human trafficking cases in the US.

Thenull hypothesis is that the enactment of TVPA rules has not decreasedhuman trafficking cases in the US.

Thisresearch study or report will endeavor to address these hypothesesand make recommendations from the results and information gathered.

Literaturereview

Humantrafficking could have different definitions or meanings depending onhow people view the acts. However, a study carried out by skinnerdefines it as those forced to work, held through fraud, and underthreat of violence for no pay beyond subsistence [ CITATION Ski09 l 1033 ]. However, such definitions should be broadened to cover traffickingof organs and other malpractices that give huge monetary profits totraffickers. Studiesby researcher, Patrick Belser who analyses the profits of traffickersand financial economic losses to business and countries estimate anupwards of $44.3 billion are generated annually from humantrafficking and $32 billion go to the hand of the recruiters,smugglers and financial exploiters [ CITATION Bel051 l 1033 ].Traffickingin persons is modern-day slavery and exists in virtually everycountry in the world, and the United States is no exception. Almost150 years after the 13th Amendment abolished slavery and involuntaryservitude, there are still men, women, and children enslaved intolabor and commercial sexual exploitation in the United States [ CITATION McG13 l 1033 ]. Enacting newlaws with harsher penalties on traffickers and extending the windowof time for prosecutors to pursue the cases would be very effectivein fighting this crime [ CITATION She13 l 1033 ]. Authorities will also be able to prosecute people paying for sex astraffickers. If the TVPA bills are effectively enacted andimplemented, then traffickers will be deterred and consequentlytrafficking cases will be reduced or eliminated in time to come. Thepurpose of this research is also to establish the impact of TVPAenactment on human trafficking cases in the US. In order to check onwhether the laws have made an impact, data collected in 2012, 2013and 2014 will be used in this research paper. In 2000, Congressenacted the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) to combattrafficking in persons, and established the President’s InteragencyTask Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (InteragencyTask Force). Congress reauthorized this Act—in the TraffickingVictims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003 (TVPA 2003) and theTrafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 (TVPA2005). TVPA has produced rules and standards of which every countryand state is placed on a tier ranking between 1 and 3 based oncompliance with the standards.

Tier1 country or state:

Countrieswhose governments fully comply with the minimum standard

Tier2 country or state:

Countriesor States whose governments do not fully comply with the minimumstandards but are making significant efforts to do so

Tier3 country or state:

Countriesor States whose governments do not comply with the minimum standards,and are not making significant efforts to do so [ CITATION NHT121 l 1033 ].

Inthe United States, 10 categories have been used to rate the states in2014 and 41 states were in tier 1, 8 states in tier 2 and 2 states intier 3 [ CITATION Pol14 l 1033 ].

Theseratings compared to the ratings in 2011 show a great improvement incompliance by the States. For comparative purposes, the US StateDepartment has also given world ratings for 2014 as shown below:

Table1: World Tier ratings categorized per country

Human Trafficking &nbsp- &nbspUS State Department Trafficking in Persons Report 2014

Tier Placements – Tier 1Armenia Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Korea, South Luxembourg Macedonia Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Norway Poland Slovak Republic Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Taiwan United Kingdom United States of America (31 countries)

Tier Placements – Tier 2Afghanistan Albania Argentina Aruba Azerbaijan The Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Benin Bhutan Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Cabo Verde Cameroon Chad Colombia Congo, Republic of Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Curacao Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Gabon Georgia Ghana Greece Guatemala Honduras Hong Kong Hungary India Indonesia Iraq Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kiribati Kosovo Kyrgyz Republic Latvia Liberia Lithuania Macau Maldives Malawi Malta Mauritius Mexico Micronesia Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Mozambique Nepal Niger Nigeria Oman Palau Paraguay Peru Philippines Portugal Romania St. Lucia St. Maarten Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore South Africa Swaziland Tajikistan Trinidad &amp Tobago Togo Tonga Turkey Uganda United Arab Emirates Vietnam Zambia (82 coutries)

Tier Placements – Tier 2 Watch ListAngola Antigua &amp Barbuda Bahrain Belarus Belize Bolivia Bosnia &amp Herzegovina Botswana Burma Burundi Cambodia China (PRC) Comoros Cyprus Djibouti Guinea Guyana Haiti Jamaica Kenya Laos Lebanon Lesotho Madagascar Mali Marshall Islands Morocco Namibia Pakistan Panama Qatar Rwanda St. Vincent &amp The Grenadines Solomon Islands South Sudan Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Tanzania Timor-Leste Tunisia Turkmenistan Ukraine Uruguay (51 countries)

Tier 3Algeria Central African Republic Congo, Democratic Rep.Of Cuba Equatorial Guinea Eritrea The Gambia Guinea-Bissau Iran Korea, North Kuwait Libya Malaysia* Mauritania Papua New Guinea Russia Saudi Arabia Syria Thailand* Uzbekistan Venezuela* Yemen Zimbabwe (27 countries)* Auto downgrade from Tier 2 Watch ListSpecial caseSomalia

[ CITATION USS14 l 1033 ]

Inthis report, only 31 countries are in tier 1 translating to 16%compliance globally. Worldwide, the report is used by internationalorganizations, foreign governments, and non -governmentalorganizations alike as a tool to examine where resources are mostneeded. Freeing victims, preventing trafficking, and bringingtraffickers to justice are the ultimate goals of the report and ofthe U.S Government`s anti-human trafficking policy [ CITATION USS14 l 1033 ].

Data

Inmanipulating the data in this research paper, the victims oftrafficking will be the independent variable. These are the peoplesuffering from consequences of human trafficking.Profits raked inby traffickers in this illegal trade are the causes of the trade tocontinue over time and this will be the dependent variable. Asconcerns the passing of laws against trafficking, the legislationswill be the dependent variable. However, due to the scope of theresearch, secondary data will be used in giving an analysis of humantrafficking. Sources of data include the Government, and Nationaland International Agencies that are fighting trafficking in persons. The United States Accountability Office (GAO) reported in July 2006thatthe U.S. government estimates that 600,000to 800,000 persons aretrafficked across international borders annually [ CITATION GAO06 l 1033 ]. However, the accuracy of the estimates is in doubt because ofmethodological weaknesses, gaps in data, and numerical discrepancies.For example, the U.S. government’s estimate was developed by oneperson who did not document all his work, so the estimate may not bereplicable, casting doubt on its reliability. Limitations of thisresearch paper are based on these facts. Moreover, country data arenot available, reliable, or comparable. There is also a considerablediscrepancy between the numbers of observed and estimated victims ofhuman trafficking. The U.S. government has not yet established aneffective mechanism for estimating the number of victims or forconducting ongoing analysis of trafficking related data that resideswithin government entities [ CITATION GAO06 l 1033 ].The databases provide information on different aspects of humantrafficking since each organization analyzes the problem based on itsown mandate. For example,IOM looks at trafficking from a migration and rights point of view,and ILO from the point of view of forced labor. This research papertherefore will depend on secondary data, and scholarly literature inanalyzing human trafficking in the US.

TheU.S. government International Labor Organization (ILO) UnitedNations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), and InternationalOrganization for Migration (IOM) have been the main sources of dataused in this report. These organizations have focused and provideddata mainly on global estimates of victims, global estimate ofvictims Country and regional patterns of international trafficking,and actual victims assisted by IOM in 26 countries. Reports fromthese sources indicate that the number of victims trafficked acrossborders in 2003 numbered between 600,000 and 800,000 persons. Atleast 2.45 million people were trafficked internationally and withinthe nation during the period1995 to 2004 [ CITATION GAO06 l 1033 ].7,711victims were assisted by IOM during 1999 to 2005 from exploitation,Commercial sex, Economic or forced labor, Mixed and other forms ofhuman trafficking.

Thedata in table 2 below was given by NHTRC in 2013 on the total numberof calls for victims if human trafficking in the US:

Table2: Total number of calls on trafficking cases received in the UnitedStates in 2013 given per State.

California 3,083 Texas 2,236 Florida 1,722 New York 1,158 Ohio 744 Virginia 741 Georgia 723 Maryland 705 Pennsylvania 668 Illinois 660 Washington 633 North Carolina 624 New Jersey 561 Michigan 554 Louisiana 442 District of Columbia 427 Massachusetts 385 Tennessee 374 Missouri 372 Colorado 356 Oregon 350 Kentucky 345 Kansas 303 Minnesota 300 Arizona 298 International Location 296 Oklahoma 293 Indiana 278 South Carolina 273 Nevada 236 Alabama 228 Wisconsin 197 Arkansas 182 Mississippi 162 Utah 138 Connecticut 128 South Dakota 124 Iowa 118 New Mexico 117 Nebraska 110 Idaho 90 Maine 85 Hawaii 85 North Dakota 63 Wyoming 52 Rhode Island 52 West Virginia 50 Montana 44 New Hampshire 40 Delaware 37 Vermont 35 Alaska 31 Puerto Rico 11 Guam 10 Northern Marianas Islands 5 American Samoa 1 [ CITATION NHT13 l 1033 ]

Source of information: National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC)

Note: The data displayed in this report was generated based on information communicated to the National Human Trafficking Resource Center hotline via phone, SMS text message, email, and online tip report. The NHTRC cannot verify the accuracy of the information reported. This is not a comprehensive report on the scale or scope of human trafficking within the state. These

Statistics may be subject to change.

*These statistics refer to the number of calls from callers in each state (where this data is available), not the number of unique trafficking incidents by state. [ CITATION NHT13 l 1033 ]

Fromthe data and information given table 1, the average number of callsmade in 2013 is 462 calls ranging from 1 call in American Samoa to3083 calls in California.

Tocreate awareness and involve the community in fighting trafficking ofpersons,hotlines are the main methods used in data collection and a number ofthem have been set at the National and state level.

Basedon the data and information gathered in this paper, it is clear thatthe States in the US are becoming more aware of this crime and areexpected to increase surveillance. The coutry is in need ofresources such as enhanced laws, staff training, personnel, treatmentoptions, and other anti trafficking resources to appropriately moveforward in preventing human sex trafficking. [ CITATION TBI11 l 1033 ]. However,there are a number of limitations that would generally affect thispaper.

Fromreports given by the GAO, human trafficking limitations emanated fromavailability, reliability and comparability of data and information. Some of the limitations stated include the followings facts:

1.Trafficking is an illegal activity and victims are afraid to seekhelp from the relevant authorities.

2.Few States collect data on actual victims on a systematic basis.

3.Data collection is focused on women and children trafficked forsexual exploitation, and

4.Other forms of trafficking are likely to be underreported.

5.Capacity for data collection and analysis in countries of origin isoften inadequate.

6.Trafficking convictions in countries of destination are based onvictim testimony.

7.Estimates of trafficking are extrapolated from samples of reportedvictims, which may not be random and thus representative of alltrafficking victims.

8.Official statistics do not make clear distinctions among trafficking,smuggling, and illegal migration.

9.Data are often program specific and focus on characteristics ofvictims pertinent to specific agencies such as the U.S. government,ILO, UNODC and IOM

Source:GAO.[ CITATION GAO06 l 1033 ].

Researchmethods

Inthis research paper, the data used is already collected by differentagencies in the US and it will be used in the statistics. The scopeof the research is wide and such data sources are best in providingdata on a wider scale. It’s clear from the statistics given thatchildren, both foreign nationals and US citizens, are targets forpredators who wish to use them as very lucrative commodities. Foran adult to be a victim of human trafficking, force, fraud orcoercion must be present. Sex trafficking of adults includes forcedprostitution, stripping and pornography. &nbspIt’s common to bethreatened with severe harm to themselves or their family members,including their children, parents or siblings. Others are offered aseemingly legitimate job as a maid, nanny, waitress, factory worker,gardener or the like, but the “job” turns out to be slavery andthe promised terms and wages a lie. Table 3 below shows an extract ofState Breakdown of Potential Trafficking Cases in 2012.

Table3: Breakdown of potential human trafficking cases reported as perState in the United States of America.

STATE

HIGH

MODERATE

STATE

HIGH

MODERATE

California

662

796

Texas

426

524

Florida

303

334

New York

242

268

International location

146

263

Illinois

162

186

District of Columbia

124

176

Virginia

120

136

Ohio

94

155

North Carolina

102

134

Georgia

112

118

Maryland

123

95

Pennsylvania

68

144

New Jersey

108

98

Washington

74

131

Michigan

77

77

Nevada

72

78

Oregon

60

70

Arizona

57

72

Tennessee

60

66

Massachusetts

48

70

Indiana

42

62

Missouri

53

53

Colorado

36

67

Louisiana

47

45

Minnesota

46

45

Oklahoma

37

53

South Carolina

34

56

Kentucky

35

49

Alabama

35

41

Connecticut

39

35

Wisconsin

34

37

Kansas

21

35

Mississippi

19

37

Hawaii

33

19

Iowa

21

22

New Mexico

19

21

Utah

16

18

Nebraska

17

15

Rhode Island

8

21

Arkansas

8

21

West Virginia

5

12

Maine

5

12

Montana

9

7

Idaho

5

10

Vermont

4

11

Alaska

4

8

North Dakota

1

9

Guam

5

4

Wyoming

5

3

Delaware

3

5

Puerto Rico

3

4

Northern Mariana Island

3

2

South Dakota

3

1

US Virgin Islands

3

1

New Hampshire

0

1

American Samoa

0

1

Note:These statistics are non-cumulative. Some cases may involve multiplelocations.

[ CITATION NHT12 l 1033 ]

Thereis at least one report detected in each of the states and this is anindicator of awareness about human trafficking in the States. American Samoa had the least number of reports and California had thehighest number of reports.

Table4 below gives us data that has been collected between 2012 and 2014for one of the States compared to the whole of the United States as aNation.

Table4: Data for the United States and Tennessee State.

Tennessee

National -US

total calls since 2007

927

69503

total cases since 2007

225

16140

total Victims since 2007:

moderate

262

17722

high

174

14224

Tennessee State

National -US

2014

2013

2012

mean

2014

2013

2012

mean

total calls

90

334

180

201

10915

20579

13325

14940

total cases

36

61

49

49

2537

4884

3279

3567

sex trafficking

29

44

34

36

1840

3392

2367

2533

labor trafficking

5

11

12

9

400

871

622

631

other forms of trafficking

2

4

2

3

198

502

206

302

sex and labor trafficking

0

2

1

1

99

119

84

101

total cases

36

61

49

49

2537

4884

3279

3567

female cases

30

48

44

41

2084

3751

2589

2808

male cases

5

17

5

9

347

767

445

520

adult cases

26

47

29

34

1664

3000

1824

2163

minor cases

10

22

16

16

788

1518

1016

1107

Source:Polaris project.

TennesseeState has been chosen for comparison in this report because it isreported as having implemented the best anti trafficking programs inthe US (NHTRC, 2007-2012. Issues on human trafficking as a form ofslavery are recent and therefore comparative data in this case isspanning for just about three years. Statistical results from suchdata may not be statistically significant because the sample issmall. However, the data is valid because it gives indicators thatcan be used in decision making. The mean of cases in each categoryof victims is indicated in the table.

Thedata obtained between 2012 and 2014 in the table above was used inascertaining validity of the figures against their mean in twoaspects: commercial sex trafficking and human labor trafficking. Data on trafficking in body organs was scanty and therefore notapplied in this research paper. The samples are small and thereforethe Z-scores were used in determining the significance of the annualchanges in the figures against the mean of the variable preferablyover the ANOVA tests. The mean of the values was obtained and az-score was calculated from each value against the mean. The resultsare given in the tables below.

Tennessee total cases of trafficking

z -score 2014

Mean

48.6666667

-1.013

Standard Error

7.21880261

Median

49

z-score 2013

Mode

#N/A

Standard Deviation

12.5033329

0.9864

Sample Variance

156.333333

Kurtosis

#DIV/0!

z-score 2012

Skewness

-0.1198827

Range

25

0.0267

Minimum

36

Maximum

61

Sum

146

Count

3

Confidence Level(95.0%)

31.0600008

Tennessee sex trafficking

Mean

35.6666667

Standard Error

4.40958552

z-score 2014

Median

34

Mode

#N/A

-0.873

Standard Deviation

7.63762616

Sample Variance

58.3333333

z-score 2013

Kurtosis

#DIV/0!

Skewness

0.93521953

1.0911

Range

15

Minimum

29

z-score 2012

Maximum

44

Sum

107

-0.218

Count

3

Confidence Level(95.0%)

18.9729152

Tennessee labor trafficking

Mean

9.33333333

z-score 2014

Standard Error

2.18581284

Median

11

0.7044

Mode

#N/A

Standard Deviation

3.7859389

z-score 2013

Sample Variance

14.3333333

Kurtosis

#DIV/0!

0.4402

Skewness

-1.597097

Range

7

z-score 2012

Minimum

5

Maximum

12

-1.145

Sum

28

Count

3

Confidence Level(95.0%)

9.40479359

United States National total trafficking cases

z-score 2014

Mean

3566.667

Standard Error

692.6197

-0.8583

Median

3279

Mode

#N/A

z-score 2012

Standard Deviation

1199.653

Sample Variance

1439166

-0.23979

Kurtosis

#DIV/0!

Skewness

1.017016

z-score 2013

Range

2347

Minimum

2537

1.098096

Maximum

4884

Sum

10700

Count

3

Confidence Level(95.0%)

2980.102

United States National sex trafficking cases

z-score 2014

Mean

2533

-0.8781

Standard Error

455.6472

Median

2367

z-score 2013

Mode

#N/A

Standard Deviation

789.204

1.088438

Sample Variance

622843

Kurtosis

#DIV/0!

z-score 2012

Skewness

0.904647

Range

1552

-0.21034

Minimum

1840

Maximum

3392

Count

3

Confidence Level(95.0%)

1960.491

United States National labor trafficking cases

z-score 2014

Mean

302

-0.60028

Standard Error

100.0267

Median

206

z-score 2013

Mode

#N/A

Standard Deviation

173.2513

1.154393

Sample Variance

30016

Kurtosis

#DIV/0!

z-score 2012

Skewness

1.727897

Range

304

-0.55411

Minimum

198

Maximum

502

Count

3

Confidence Level(95.0%)

430.38

Thecharts below are drawn from the information at the national level inthe United States showing the victims of trafficking per sex andgender.

Formthese charts, it can be easily seen that there is an impact realizedin 2014 as compared to cases in 2013 in all variables on traffickingin persons indicated.

Findingsand Discussion

Theresults obtained show that all the z-scores obtained are within thelimits at 95% confidence level and none of the figures gives az-score that is outside the limits at 95% confidence level. Thetable below gives a summary of the results.

Hypothesis

Result

1

Hypothesis rejected and null hypothesis accepted

2

Hypothesis rejected and null hypothesis accepted

3

Hypothesis rejected and null hypothesis accepted

Thez-scores are within plus or minus 1.96 on a two tailed test. Morestatistical information is given in the tables but still indicate aninsignificant change in the values. However, the values at theNational level are close to the limits of significance showing thatthe problem could be growing at the National level. This impliesthat trafficking in persons are issues that are operational withintolerable limits and have not yet escalated to significant levels. Further information and data is necessary in making informeddecisions.

Fromthe charts, it can be concluded that the enforcement of the 10 pointTVPA tier rules may have had a positive impact on traffickingresulting in a drop realized in 2014 although this was not verysignificant statistically. If we compare this result with what wasobtained in Tennessee as one of the most compliant state in tier 1,the trend of results is the similar.

Fromthe breakdown of trafficking cases, it is evident that the wholecountry is aware to some extend about trafficking in persons and thatis why convictions are realized. 39 States out of 51 are in tier 1translating to 76.5% of the US. Compared to 16% tier ratingsobtained in our data, it is clear that the US government is ready tofight trafficking in persons within its borders. The average numberof calls of 462 against 600,000 Number of suspected victimstrafficked in the year this translates to 0.077% which is a verysmall percentage. There is a possibility that those who would comeout to report cases are still hindered in one way or the other and aspointed out, the limitations are a great hindrance in getting callerson board. At the National and State level in the US, the data andinformation below was compiled to give an insight into currentposition regarding fighting the crime [ CITATION Pol14 l 1033 ].

Table4: Information on tier ratings at the US National Level.

 7 states passed new laws to fight human trafficking in the past year

 As of July 31, 2014, 39 states are now rated in Tier 1 (7+ points), up from 32 states in 2013

 12 states have failed to make minimal efforts to pass laws that support victims.

 Delaware, New Jersey, and Washington have perfect scores, meaning they have laws fulfilling all 10 categories

 5 states were most improved this year: Delaware, New Hampshire, Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Utah.

The statistics below are based on the signals phone calls, emails, and webforms received by the NHTRC that reference Tennessee. To protect the identity of the people we serve, the NHTRC does not disclose exact statistics related to venues, industries, or caller information when referenced fewer than three times.

Source:Polaris project [ CITATION Pol141 l 1033 ].

ConclusionStatisticsin this research paper clearly indicate that data on humantrafficking needs to be improved to become significant. Much of theinformation collected at the national and state levels dependent onindividuals and such data cannot be easily validated for consistencyand reliability. However, mechanism to improve on such data shouldbe improved at the State, National level in the US.

Thefour hypotheses are rejected due to being insignificant at 95%confidence levels and therefore the null hypotheses remain accepted.

Hypothesis

  1. Reject hypothesis and accept null hypothesis at 95% confidence level since z-scores are within limits. Number of convictions has not yet decreased.

  2. Reject hypothesis and accept null hypothesis at 95% confidence level since z-scores are within limits. The number of calls has not increased.

  3. Reject hypothesis and accept null hypothesis at 95% confidence level since z-scores are within limits. TVPA enactment has not yet decreased the number of human trafficking cases.

Forstatisticians to make valuable conclusions on trafficking, collectionof data must be reliable and comparative. Reports used in thisresearch paper have clearly indicated that human trafficking isgrowing very fast due to its profits hence becoming one of the mostprofitable crimes. Thousands of people get enslaved within theircountry borders and there could be millions out there. Vulnerablepeople especially children are suffering in untold proportions in theUS and around the world. Human trafficking is slavery. It is acommercial exploitation of persons which must be condemned and foughtout by all means. The Bureau of Justice Assistance reports thatthe United States is generally a destination for trafficking victimswho are recruited in their home countries and transported throughother countries. But movement is not required for human traffickingto occur. Many U.S. citizens trafficked are usually run-away teenagegirls and at times boys, who are preyed upon by pimps and traffickedfor prostitution. The Department of Justice has includedinvestigating human trafficking among its top priorities [ CITATION Bur14 l 1033 ]

TheTrafficking in Persons Report shows us that the global safety net iscurrently too weak to quickly and effectively provide all survivorswith the help they need. Once again, less than one percent of anestimated 21 million victims of human trafficking have beenidentified worldwide. A robust response network is needed that cantruly reach victims, help survivors rebuild their lives, holdtraffickers accountable, and push the world closer to eradicatingmodern slavery [ CITATION Pol14 l 1033 ].This research report also confirms that many countries and states areyet to network in data collection and the laws that are in place arestill at an early stage of effectively containing the crime. However, the insignificant changes pointed out by the z-score do notnegate the fact that a trend was emerging that shows some impact asseen in the charts above. The developing of tier rankings by the USgovernment is a sure way of bringing all stakeholders on board. Human trafficking hotlines are integral to this effort so thattrained specialists can connect victims to life-saving services, andto identify where and how human trafficking is happening asrecommended through Polaris project [ CITATION Pol14 l 1033 ].Polaris Project’s experience operating the National HumanTrafficking Resource Center in the United States, is working toreinforce safety globally by mapping, connecting, and supportinghuman trafficking and related hotlines around the world. This effortrequires all countries to take concrete steps to invest in localservices that can support survivors [ CITATION Pol14 l 1033 ]. The three hypotheses in this research paper have been rejected andthis concurs with the need to reinforce and invest in antitrafficking programs in the US and around the world. However, thecharts show some impact which could be the result of legislativeactions against traffickers. Much more should be investigated on theeffect of legal actions against the rate of trafficking in persons. Further investigations should also be done to find out whether thedrop experienced this year is an indicator to new trafficking methodsthat have not been reported by the agencies in place. Trafficking inbody organs also needs to be addressed and data collectedeffectively. Enactment of TVPA tier rating system should be enforcedand information or surveillance networks should be funded bygovernments worldwide the curb trafficking in persons.

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