Sampling and Measurement.

Sampling and Measurement 2

Keyindicators of the quality of a measuring instrument are thereliability and validity of the measures (Carole L. Kimberlin &ampWinterstein, 2008). Trustworthinessof findings, conclusions and recommendations in any study largelydepends on the validity, and reliability of the methodsand instruments usedin datacollection. Acredible researcher minimizespossible errors and bias bymaximizing the reliabilityand validityof data. A research is valid if : theresults can be attributed to the manipulation/ independent variable,study are able to be generalized confidently to a group larger thanthe group that participated in the study,the results support the theory behind the research and data showing to be the result of cause-effect relationships rather than accident.In this case study there are number of variables financial,management and market variables. The results of the study in the casestudy can be used to address problems in other areas, like the ideaon partnering with the other likeminded partners in cost sharinghospitals expenditures for example hospitals partnering with academicmedical centre’s. The research supports the theory used in thiscase study, the researcher is able to come up with conclusionregarding the study with the support of the theory used. Theavailability of essential resources in the hospitals is determined bycash flow in these same hospitals.

Onreliability of the research, for a research to be reliable, theresults from a measurement should be consistent over time(Golafshani, 2003).Inthis case study, some part of the measurement were not similar suchas number of beds varied in the initial sampling and final sampling,of course this would produce different results meaning the resultwould not be reliable.

Theresearch carried out, was restricted to various hospitals, this meantthatsamplingprovided estimates which were essentially unbiased and had ameasurable precision as well as ensuringa high degree of representativeness. The study used both qualitativeand quantitative methods. Qualitative is data that can be expressedas a numbers and quantitative is the data that cannot be representedin number form usually used to gain an understanding of underlyingreasons and motivations in a sample of research. In the case studyarticle data has been represented in form of numbers in the tableprovided, and the data has been used to gain understanding on market,management, and financial factors in regard to cash flow generationas well.

Theresearch in the articles is clear and precise specifying both theindependent and the dependent variables under investigation, in thiscase the cash flow, market and management variables in free standinghospitals. The research clearly explained why things are the way theyare in free standing hospitals that is, why some free standinghospital register high cash flow despite doing their day to dayrunning on their own. The study in the articles used probabilitysampling, this type of sampling ensuresa high degree of representativeness of population sampled.

Theuseof the measurement which was not similar, such as number of bedswhich varied in the initial sampling and final sampling, make thefindings unreliable to some extent. For best research findings aresearcher should ensure that results from a measurement are:consistent over time an accurate representation of the totalpopulation under study and can be reproduced under a similarmethodology (Golafshani,2003).


CaroleL. Kimberlin, C. L., &amp Winterstein, A. G. (2008, December 1).Validity and reliability of measurement instruments used in research.AmJ Health-Syst Pharm, 65,2276-2284. doi:doi 10.2146/ajhp070364.

Golafshani,N. (2003). Understanding reliability and validity in qualitativeresearch. TheQualitative Report, 8(4),597-606. Retrieved November 5, 2014, from