Sex Offenders


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  1. Introduction: Sexual molestation has become a common phenomenon in the modern society with a large number of victims being subjected to sexual harassment. The study highlights&nbspdifferences and similarities between male, female, and juvenile sex offenders.

  2. Similarities and differences between male, female, and juvenile sex offenders:

  1. Similarities: They have difficulties relating to other people. They also possess poor problem solving and coping strategies.

  2. Differences: women sexual offenders are victims of emotional and physical deprivation, which might have occurred during childhood. Male sex offenders are mostly men who are in informal relationships where there is trust while most female offenders are victims of traumatic experiences that may have involved sexual abuse.

  1. Differences between juvenile sex offenders and adult male and female sex offenders: Unlike adult sex offenders, most juvenile sex offenders are youngsters who have full knowledge of the victims. While both male and female offenders can target a victim of either gender, juvenile sex offenders tend to target the victims from the opposite gender.

  2. The charging, prosecution and sentencing of sex offenders: While determining the appropriate action to be taken against the offender, the age and gender of the offender are some of the factors put into consideration. The sentencing of women and children is lenient compared to that of male offenders.

  3. Treatment opportunities available for sex offenders: Psychotherapy is instrumental when dealing with sex offenders since it focusses on identifying behaviors that trigger the offences and developing strategies that will be used by the offenders to overcome such behaviors.

  4. Conclusion: There are similarities and differences the sexual offences carried by men, women, and juveniles. The coping skills of the offenders are poor, and this is why they have an inability to overcome challenges. Male and female sex offenders are different based on the victims they target.


Sexualmolestation has become a common phenomenon in the modern society witha large number of victims being subjected to sexual harassment. Thisform of harassment can be experienced in a number of contexts such asschools, at home, or in the workplace. Students report being sexuallyharassed by their fellow students, teachers, or other staff workingin a school setting. Workplace sexual harassment is also a commonoccurrence and employees may experience this harassment from theirfellow employees, supervisors, or senior manager within theorganization. Men, women, as well as juveniles, are all culprits ofsexual offences (McAnulty&amp Burnette, 2006).These offenders tend to portray some differences and similarities inthe way they treat their victims, and in regard with what motivatesthem to engage in the offences. This&nbspstudy willhighlight&nbspdifferences and similarities between male, female, andjuvenile sex offenders. The paper will also highlight how theseoffenders are charged, prosecuted, sentenced, and the treatmentoptions available to the offenders.

Similaritiesand differences between male, female, and juvenile sex offenders


Thebehavior of sex offenders is largely determined by their age andgender. This implies that there are differences between male andfemale sex offenders, as well as children sex offenders. The UnitedStates Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that approximately 10,000women are arrested every year for sexual offences. Girls within theage of adolescent comprise of 27 percent of the Juveniles arrestedfor involvement in sexual offences. The number of male sexualoffenders arrested every year surpasses the women involved. Studiesindicate that there are quite some similarities between theseoffenders (Applewhite, 2014).

Oneof the similarities between the male and female sexual offenders isthat they are mainly people who have difficulties in relationships.The offenders have the inability to maintain relationships for a longtime or be involved in relationships that can be considered asstable. Male and females involved in sexual offences often havedifficulties maintaining interpersonal relationships with otherpeople. This is because they have poor social skills and do not havethe confidence to associate with other people properly. As a result,they experience broken relationships, and this implies that they arerarely supported by other adults. Without the support of others, theyfind themselves vulnerable and are likely to harass other people.Moreover, lacking companionship and friendship affects themsignificantly and expose them to such criminal acts (Thorntonet al, 2009).

Theother similarity between male and female offenders (adults andjuveniles) is immaturity, as well as cognitive problems. This isbecause they suffer from errors of thinking, especially regardingthemselves and victims. To&nbspjustify the action of sexuallyoffending others, the sexual offenders normally refer themselves asvictims who have experienced sexual harassment in the past. As aresult of the cognitive distortions they suffer from, there is atendency to place the blame on victims in such a manner that thevictims are seen as the actual cause of the offense. The offendersare also similar in that they are emotionally immature this emanatesfrom the fact that they tend to view themselves as weak beings whocannot control their actions. They are unable to control the thoughtsthat motivate them to molest others sexually (Applewhite, 2014).

Anothersimilarity that can be clearly seen in the sex offenders is the poorcoping skills and strategies that are common with these criminals.Both female and male sexual offenders experience difficulties indeveloping strategies that can help in problem solving. When theseoffenders experience problems in life, they have challenges solvingthe problems or come up with appropriate strategies that can helpminimize the effects of these problems. Since they have few optionsof solving the problems in their lives, they are more likely tooffend others sexually as a way of escaping from reality. Rather thansolving the challenges they experience, the offenders engage inbehavior that is likely to create more problems. Studies show thatmale and female sex offenders have had difficult situations in lifeand have been unable to change the situations (Salter,2003).

Theother similarity that is common in male and female sex offenders(whether adults or juveniles) is the lack of empathy for the victims.The sexual offenders do not understand the harm they cause to theirvictims. This is why they abuse the victims mercilessly without anydue consideration of the impact their actions will have on thevictims. Also, they rarely express any remorse for their actions andcan cause actual bodily harm to the victims. For instance, theoffenders can injure victims who resist sexual harassment throughhitting them or beating them up when they resist the advances of thesex offenders. Moreover, both male and female sex offenders tend tocontinue with the act of molestation without any feelings, and theyare never worried by the physical and emotional pain that the offencewill have on the victims. The offenders do not acknowledge the harmthey have caused to the victims (Applewhite, 2014).


Besidesthe&nbspsimilarities between female and male sex offenders, therealso tends to be differences between the offenders. This also appliesto young people (juveniles) who are involved in sexual offences. Onemajor difference is that women sexual offenders are victims ofemotional and physical deprivation, which might have occurred duringchildhood. Many cases of juvenile offenders indicate that theoffenders were deprived of affection and love from parents andcaregivers, especially during their childhood years. Women sexoffenders are victims of poor living standards and conditions,physical neglect, and lack of medical care during childhood. Thereare&nbspdifferences in the age of victims targeted by male, female,and juvenile sex offenders. In the case of male offenders, thevictims are likely to be aged women or men, as well as young boys andgirls. However, for female and juvenile sex offenders, the victimscomprise of young children. This is because these offenders mostlytake part in sexual offences while in paid childcare roles.Babysitting is a job that is mostly dominated by women, and some ofthe women babysitters (offenders) target children between the age ofthree and six years (Vandiver and Teske, (2006).

Whilemale sex offenders are mostly men who are in informal relationshipswhere there is trust, most female offenders are victims of traumaticexperiences that may have involved sexual abuse. Trauma in childhoodis a major cause of sexual offences among female offenders than maleoffenders. Female sex offenders are women who have been subjected totraumatic experiences such as violence within the family, alcohol anddrug abuse by parents and other caregivers, and being brought up bymany caregivers. These experiences expose women to abuse, and theyare likely to replicate the same to female and male victims of sexualabuse (Applewhite, 2014).

Differencesbetween juvenile sex offenders and adult male and female sexoffenders

Inthe recent past, juvenile sex offences have been in the rise, with alarge number of adolescents taking part in this crime. Juvenile sexoffenders portray some characteristics, which differentiate them fromadult female and male sex offenders. One of the differences is thetendency of the offenders to target their relatives. This explainswhy there is a close relationship between the offenders and thevictims. From research, it is evident that most of the juvenile sexoffenders are children who have full knowledge of the victims. Forexample, the offenders might have been involved in childcareactivities such as babysitting the victim. In addition, they mostlyabuse relatives, and most of the offenders are young people withoutsiblings. Thus, sexual abuse of family members is common among thejuveniles than in adult male and female sex offenders (Vandiver andTeske, 2006).

Thegender of the victim targeted is also another element thatcharacterizes the differences between male and female sex offendersand juvenile offenders. While both male and female offenders cantarget a victim of either gender, juvenile sex offenders tend totarget the victims from the opposite gender. For example, young girlstend to target small boys whom they have been babysitting. Inaddition, young females have a high affinity for boys, and this makesthem commit sexual offences with younger boys. On the other hand,young boys involved in juvenile sexual offences normally target girls(Salter,2003).

Thecharging, sentencing, and Prosecution of Sex offenders

Sexualoffence&nbspis a serious crime, and it is highly regarded as anaction that is liable to prosecution and sentencing through a courtof law. Most laws have established the basic rules that should guidehow sexual offenders are charged, as well as the procedure ofdetermining their prosecution and sentencing. While determining theappropriate action to be taken against the offender, the age andgender of the offender are some of the factors put intoconsideration. The&nbspjustice system protects women and juvenileoffenders while men are subjected to rigorous criminal proceedings.This means that biases and stereotypes are applied in the&nbspjusticesystem&nbspto address&nbspthe issue of sex offences. Duringsentencing, women receive lenient sentences while the sentences ofmale offenders are harsh. In addition, the sentencing of juveniles islenient compared to the sentences that are meted upon adult offenders(Embry and Lyons, 2012).

Whensex offenders are charged in a court of law, judges make certainconsiderations in order to determine&nbspif&nbspthe crime&nbspcanbe classified&nbspas a sexual offence. There are parameters used incriminal proceedings to determine the length of the sentence. Theseparameters constitute what is a sexual offence within the law. Forinstance, the court considers sexual conduct between a minor and anadult to be a sex offence. Therefore, adults who are caught engagingin sexual activities with minors are likely to be subjected to harshsentences. Sexual assault of one’s spouse is also classified as asex offense and the partner who is suspected to have abused the otheris a considered a sex offender. Child molestation is another sexoffence that the court considers a criminal act. If a child issexually molested continuously, the suspect can be charged andsentenced in a court. Other offences that are considered to be sexualharassment include subjecting minors to acts of prostitution. Underthe law, it is prohibited to engage in commercial sex with childrenbelow the age of eighteen years (McAnulty&amp Burnette, 2006).

Treatmentopportunities available for sex offenders

Certaintreatment strategies can be employed when dealing with sex offenders.The aim of using these strategies is to help the offender acquireappropriate models, which will help them cease behaviors that aresexually abusive. In addition, the treatment opportunities for sexoffenders on the importance of the offenders accepting responsibilityfor the harm&nbspcaused to the victim. Psychotherapy is instrumentalwhen dealing with sex offenders since it focusses on identifyingbehaviors that trigger the offences and developing strategies thatwill be used by the offenders to overcome such behaviors. Withtreatment, the possibility of the offender to be involved in sexuallyabusive behavior in the future is significantly reduced (Thorntonet al, 2009).


Inconclusion, it is worth noting that sexual offenders can either bemales, females or even juveniles. There are similarities anddifferences the sexual offences carried by men, women, and juveniles.Most sexual offenders, whether male, female&nbspor juveniles,&nbsparepeople who have difficulties in relating to others. The coping skillsof the offenders are also poor, and this is why they have aninability to overcome challenges. Male and female sex offenders aredifferent based on the victims they target, as well as what motivatesthem to carry out the acts of sexual harassment. The criminal justicesystem has established rules that guide the prosecution andsentencing of sex offenders.


Applewhite,M. (2014). Similaritiesand Differences Between Female and Male Sexual Offenders. RetrievedFrom:

Embry,R. and Lyons, P. M. (2012). Sex-Bases Sentencing: SentencingDiscrepancies Between Male and Female . FeministCriminology 7,146.

McAnulty,R. D., &amp Burnette, M. M. (2006).&nbspSexand sexuality: Sexual Deviation and Sexual Offenses.Westport (Conn.: Praeger.

Salter,A. C. (2003).&nbspPredators:Pedophiles, rapists, and other sex offenders: who they are, how theyoperate, and how we can protect ourselves and our children.New York: Basic Books.

Thornton,D., Laws, D. R., &amp Wiley InterScience (Online service).(2009).&nbspCognitiveapproaches to the assessment of sexual interest in sexual offenders.Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Vandiver,D. M. and Teske, R. (2006). Juvenile Female and Male : AComparison of Offender, Victim, and Judicial ProcessingCharacteristics. InternationalJournal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 50(2),148-165.