is a field that unifies the study diversity of people. It focuses onhow human behavior and consciousness is formed by the surroundingwhile, at the same time shaping its environment. Hence, sociology isthe study of social institutions and human behavior (Giddens &ampBirdsall, 2001).

FirstReading: it is amazing that relationships can be distinguished aspersonal, impersonal and at the edge abstract relationships. Inwhich, personal relationships also exist in different forms. Thoserelationships that are encompassed in intimacy. Intimacy, which isbased on trust in the context of mutual substantiation, respect,support, care, and disclosure. It is also amazing that sociology getsto guide how these relationships are conducted. This is like in thecase of intergenerational relationships. Where there are strongsocial taboos that are against making these relationships erotic. Inaddition, there can be social relationships that are not intimate,lie the ones formed with colleagues and exist solely because of theroles played by them (Giddens &amp Birdsall, 2001). Where theserelationships tend to end when our characters are finished. Inaddition to relationships that involve functions. There areimpersonal relationships that strictly involve roles for people to beable to conduct their work entirely. Since it is because of thisdepersonalization that their work is respected and performed to theexpected standards.

SecondReading: it is good to know that our societies are highly age graded.This is to say that society expects certain achievements atparticular ages. In this, it is considered that with age comematurity. That our lives follow an order, from childhood toadolescence then adulthood, and if this decree is interrupted, itbecomes problematic. With this knowledge of maturity another factorarises, Ageism. This is the discrimination in accordance with age. Itis particularly that the old discriminate against young people.Merely because they are of a lower age and thus considered less,mature.

ThirdReading: it is interesting to note that generations are very hard todefine. This is because a generation is a diffuse of concepts. As aresult, the need to put firm boundaries in the generations cohortswere developed. This is the grouping of a generation in considerationof an event or period. In addition, those in this cohorts orgenerations also identify with it. That is to say, they seethemselves in that generation as also an observer can see them in ittoo. This helps social scientists to group generations qualitatively(Giddens &amp Birdsall, 2001).

FourthReading: it is interesting to know that childhood is a socialinvention. The invention developed and evolved to what it is nowthrough the centuries. As in the old age as soon as a child was ableto leave without the consensual solitude of the mother, he wasaccepted and seen as a part of the adult society. This does notindicate that there was not care and affection for the child, but itmade the child look like a small adult. This is a significant factorsince it shows that today’s conception of childhood is moredistinct and part of a social understanding. It is a way in whichsocieties have led to view children and what they need. Although itis, quite unclear what children do and what childhood is. As weacknowledge childhood as not being a natural conception, thedevelopment stages of a child should not be neglected.

FifthReading: it is interesting that people in an extended period havebeen in love and obsessed with youth. This love and obsession createvulnerability to the society. As there is the group of young, peoplewho tend to have their subcultures. These subcultures are sometimesare considered deviant, but it is important to note that theirperverted nature is not as proposed to them. The social entrepreneursare the ones who make these groups are of a deviant nature. They makerules that allow deviance and apply these rules to a group making itperverted. As a result, an import factor comes up, that deviance isnot judged by the quality of behavior. However, as an application ofrules by these social entrepreneurs’ that insists on the norm(Giddens &amp Birdsall, 2001).

SixthReading: it is interesting to know that adulthood depends so much onsocial recognition. Social recognition is a human need whosesatisfaction brings about self-esteem and self-respect. Importantlyour judgment of adulthood deeply depends on the socialacknowledgment. A time social acceptance is the one that willinfluence on what an adult will have to fill his adult role insociety entirely. Since, social recognition is a medium by whichadults use to be fully integrated into society. The socialrecognition of a person is what makes him an adult. As a result, itis this recognition that marks as the integration of full personhood.

SeventhReading: a massive aspect of social change has happened. This is fromthe divisions provided, for example, pre-modern modern andlate-modern societies. These societies have a significant differencein terms of social labor division and integration. The pre-modernsocieties did not have a social differentiation of work and home andare integrated through shared values. The modern societies havesocial differential of work and are integrated throughinterdependence. The differentiation and integration of late modernsocieties are through system and social integration. This socialstructure is critical as it places everyone successfully in thesociety (Giddens &amp Birdsall, 2001).

EighthReading: it is important to note that women social groups althoughchanging and evolving are known as “waves”. This is because theyappeared made their mark and varnished. These movements are importantsince they changed the view about women in society. They made thesociety change on issues of politics, sexuality and evenrelationships. These groups also have had significant differenceswith the last wave refusing to be known as feminist group.

NinthReading, it is important to note that travel mode have changed, andit is now easier, faster, and cheaper to move. This factor hassignificant impacts on the economy so policies have been made toregulate who can move. In addition, this has led to furtherindividualization of people. People are not able to establish strongsocial ties because of their frequency in moving. Thus, technologicalways have been made to improve this. This has also led to thedifference in perception of who a friend is.

Inconclusion, sociology is a matter affected by many things. As seen inthese readings, relationships and interaction have changed toencompass the change in our world today. This has outlined how thesechanges occurred and how we are coping with them. As this is howhuman behavior affects and is affected by the social activities thathappen around them (Giddens &amp Birdsall, 2001).


Giddens,A., &amp Birdsall, K. (2001). .Cambridge [England: Polity Press