Stages of the Research Process


Stagesof the Research Process



Businessresearch refers to a field of practical study where the businesscollects and analyses data in order to come up to a conclusion. Theresearch process is used by most organizations irrespective of theresearch methods used (Steen,2014).In most cases, these processes are stored for future reference incasesame study is required. There are numerous steps involved in anyresearch study that helps achieve the research objective. Thecritical first stage of developing a study is to identify theproblem. This is commonly known as the research question. It is achallenge, knowledge or information that a business desires toidentify and solve (Steen,2014).There are numerous types of business research peer reviewed articlesthat have discussed globally.

Oneof the business research peer reviewed articles was held at a meetingof the Business and Organizations Ethics Partnership at Santa ClaraUniversity`s Markkula Centre. The purpose of the business researchwas to analyze the issue of tax avoidance through mergers (Steen,2014).The idea of resident companies merging with a foreign company inorder to take advantage of the tax rates in the other country. Theissue was analyzed by two speakers namely Mr Kirk who was thedirector of Markkula Centre for Applied Ethics and Mr John Courtneywho was a University Professor. There were also other two panelistswho assisted in analyzing the issue. They referred the panel as“Ethical Tax in a Global Economy”

Thehypothesis of this research article was to identify the consequencesof moving a company abroad in order to take advantage of the taxrates. The panel raised questions regarding tax policies, fairness,social and economic responsibilities of the company if the intentionwas to evade tax (Steen,2014).The two speakers argued that tax avoidance reduces the revenuecollection of a country. In addition, it affects the provision ofservices to the general public. Tax compliance costs increases due tonon compliance issues arises. The government of the United States hasmade it difficult for companies to merge in order to avoid tax.

Oneof the questions that the panel tried to address was on thepercentage share should go to each country (Steen,2014).The corporate tax compliance proves difficult for multinationalorganizations because all the countries want the whole incomegenerated to be their own. The main objective of any business entityis to make profit. The other question analyzed was the country tobear the responsibility of paying the corporate. The article of taxavoidance identifies numerous dependent and independent variables.Profithas been identified as a dependent variable because it depends onsales and expenses incurred (Steen, 2014). The other variable isgovernment tax revenue. It depends on company profits and customerincomes among others. On the other hand, independent variablesinclude sales, expenses and economic variables. They affect theprofitability of a business and change in other variables does notaffect them.

Article:Boarddiversityby Margaret Steen: retrieved from:

Everyresearch study has a starting point. Numerous researchers are notaware of what to start on or where to start when embarking on aresearch study. According to the article by Steen on board diversity,it is abundantly clear that it is essential to first identify aproblem before thinking on the solution (Steen,2014).For instance, Steen starts the article by asking herself why there islack of diversity in terms of including women and the minorities incorporate boards. Any business research must have an aim or anobjective that it aims to accomplish.

Thisarticle’s business objective is to find out the reasons why most ofthe corporate boards have few members from the minority groups suchas women and black Americans. It is also the objective of thebusiness article to provide some solutions to the problem. It isclear from the article that the problem diversity representation incorporate boards is widespread and something needs to be done.

Thebusiness article has various research questions and hypothesis thatnecessitate research. One of the research questions is what is thecause of lack of diversity representation in corporate boards. It isalso evident that the research seeks to answer the question of whatare the solutions that can be applied to solve the problem. It isalso the hypothesis of the business article that there is hugeunderrepresentation in the boards of corporate sectors. The businessarticle also hypothesizes that there is no shortage of supply ofpeople with skills and abilities to work in corporate boards fromminority groups (Steen,2014).It is also the hypothesis of the article that the main reason as towhy there are no equal representation of the minority groups emanatesfrom the fact that the people in the corporate boards are fearing therisk of lack of cooperation from the new members of the board.

Theindependent valuable in the business article is the corporate boardswhile the dependent valuable are the number of people in the minoritygroups who are changing depending on the policies that are applied invarious companies.


Steen,M. (2014). EthicalTax Systems in a Global Economy. Retrievedfrom

Steen,M. (2014). EthicalTax Systems in a Global Economy.Retrieved from: