Substantive Response Response





Acquiringknowledge for investigating reliability and validity of informationis critical for every scholar. Information published by authors orrenowned specialists in a given field is more reliable that mediacontent written by an unknown person. Franses (2014) states that if adoctoral student is investigating an issue is not a specialist in thefield, looking for peer-reviews of the content can help him or her inthe gauging validity of the information. Doctoral students shouldalso determine the age of a given content. Reliability of studyreduces as time goes because the study subjects can gradually changeover time. Finally, doctoral students do consider the research methodused versus the size of the size of the studied population. Forexample, using qualitative research method to determine wealthdistribution in the population of more than a million people could bebiased because the researcher will interview only a few people indetails. On the contrary, results of the same subject conducted usingquantitative research approach is likely to have higher validity andaccuracy than qualitative method (Franses, 2014).


Althoughthere is no dumb question, doctoral students should have thecapability of asking questions that would provoke critical thinking.Salkind (2012) asserts that scheming through the study or reading theabstract can help an individual to develop the overview of the issue.Besides, reading peer reviews and summaries of the research can helpdoctoral students understand the content better as well as, askrelevant questions such as the main points of the author, relevanceof the research to the assignment, qualifications of the author andthe aim of the study. Furthermore, the students should understandqualitative, quantitative and mixed research methods. The overview ofthe research and questions summary enable doctoral students tounderstand research content quickly (Salkind, 2012).


Fordoctoral students to ensure that the results acquired from anempirical study are accurate, they should ensure the tests are veryaccurate. After acquiring given results, students should compare theresults with their colleagues and discuss the outcome. Furthermore,they can conduct internet research for similar tests conducted byother researchers. A large collection of results by other researchersassists researchers in approximating accuracy level of a study(Hayes, 1992).


Salkind,N.J. (2012). 100Questions (and Answers) About Research Methods.SAGE Publications.

Franses,P.H. (2014). ExpertAdjustments of Model Forecasts.Cambridge University Press,

Hayes,R.J. (1992). ReadingEmpirical Research Studies: The Rhetoric of Research.Erlbaum.