Types of bones and common fractures


Typesof bones and common fractures

Bonesare important constituent of body parts that provides structuralsupport and protection of some vital organs. They are living tissueswith their own live cells and blood vessels to help them in growth.People are born with 300 bones, in which some are later on infused ata later stage so that the body remains with 206 bones. The human bodyconsists of five main types of bones short bones, long bones, flatbones, sesmoid bones, and irregular bones (White &amp Folkens,2005).


Theseare some the longest bones in human body including tibia, humerus andfemur. This category also constitutes of the smallest bones such asmetatarsals, phalanges, and metacarpals. Long bones have a longerbody than the width, have growth plates on both sides, have a bonemarrow on the inside, and are comprised of a hard outer surface. Longbones are the most prone to common accidental injuries that lead tofractures. The most common types of fractures in the long bone aregreenstick fracture, which is usually described as a small crack inthe bone and is most common among children because their bones aremore flexible.


Shortbones are almost the same in width and height. Their primary functionis to provide stability and support with little movements. Carpalsand tarsals, which are found in the wrist and foot, are some of themost known examples of short bones. They have a thin layer of compactand large amounts of bone marrow on the inside. Greenstick type offracture is common for this classification of bones. Collesstructure, which occurs in the wrists, is also common. This type offracture occurs when the distal radius is injured as a result of fallor stretching out the hand.


Theseare flat and strong plates of bones whose main function are toprovide base for muscular attachments and protect the body’s vitalorgans. Examples of flat bones include scapula, cranium, os coxae,ribs, pelvis, and sternum. The posterior and anterior surfacesconsist of compact bone that provides the strength for protection.The center consists of spongy bone with varying amounts of bonemarrow. Most red blood cells of an adult are formed in the flatbones. The most common type of fracture in these bones is avulsion.It occurs when powerful contractions wrench the tendons free andremove some pieces of the bone.


Theseare the types of bones that fall under no specific category becausethey are irregular in shape. Examples include sacrum, vertebrae, andmandible. Greenstick fracture is quite common in these bones.Further, vertebrae may incur spinal fracture, which is very seriousas it can cause permanent disability.


Theseare irregular bones and are usually short. They are embedded in atendon. Examples of this category include pisiform, which is thesmallest of carpals, and patella (knee cap). These bones are commonlypresent in a tendon where it passes through a joint that protectstendon. These bones are prone to avulsion fracture. The commonfractures in these bones is sesamoid fractures, which is more commonamong people in high impact sports such aerobics and running. Thesymptoms of sesamoid fractures are swelling of toes and foot,tenderness to touch, bruising, and limited motion to the big toe.


White,T. D., &amp Folkens, P. A. (2005). Thehuman bone manual.Burlington, Mass: Elsevier.