Western Civilization


1.New Imperialism:It refers to the period of colonial expansion undertaken, in the lastquarter of nineteenth century, by European nations as well as the U.Sand Japan. This period was championed by Joseph Chamberlain amongother nationalists whose sole interests were to gain and holdimperial territories (Spielvogel 56). The desire to control tradingroutes and resources, security, and nationalism attracted manynationalists from various nations. European nations were able toconquer approximately 20 percent of the total land globally.

2.Triple Alliance/ Central powers: It refers to a treaty that Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Germany signedin 1882. The treaty aimed at supporting the three countries’military whenever an attack occurred against any of them by two ormore great powers. Both Italy and Germany agreed to support eachother in the event of an attack by France. Nevertheless, thisalliance was defeated following Germany’s surrender to America in1918 this led to the end of World War I (Spielvogel 67).

3.Triple Entente/ Allied powers:It refers to an association that was formed between Great Britain,France, and Russia during World War I. The association was triggeredby French’s desire to make overtures to Russia with an aim ofcollaborating in order to counterbalance the Triple Alliance(Spielvogel 87). French helped Russia in its projects especially theTrans-Liberian RR. French and Russia also exchanged friendlydiplomatic visits that strengthened their relationship in an enormousmanner4.Treaty of Versailles:It refers to the peace settlement that was signed after the end ofWorld War I. It was signed at the Versailles Palace near Paris. Threefamous politicians witnessed the signing of the treaty and theyincluded Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, and David George(Spielvogel 103). The treaty contained various sections that includedfinancial, territorial, and military among others.5.Rome – Berlin Axis: Itrefers to a military and political alliance that was formed betweenItaly and Germany. The Berlin Agreement of October 25 1936 played akey role in the formalization of the alliance (Spielvogel 298). Theaxis prepared fascist states for the unleashing of World War II. Thisaxis was continued through the formation of the Anti-Comintern Pact,which was signed by Japan and Germany on November 25 1936.6.Blitzkrieg Strategy: Itreferstothe immediate and direct result of the horrors of the static warfarethat were experienced during World War I. It aimed at avoiding thestalemate of World War 1’s warfare. It was formed from severalvarying sources that ranged from the 1870s to the early years ofWorld War II. Its concept incorporated overwhelming attacks targetedat the enemy’s weak points in order to disrupt and force them inunexpected directions.7.Soviet – German Non-Aggression pact: Itrefers to an economic agreement that was negotiated and signed onAugust 19, 1939. It required Germany to exchange manufactured goodsfor Soviet raw materials. The two nations, Soviet Union and NaziGermany further signed a ten-year non aggression pact on August 23,1939 each signatory agreed not to attack the other (Spielvogel 341).However, approximately less than two years after the pact was signed,German forces invaded and attacked the Soviet Union on June 22,1941.8.Battle of Stalingrad: It acted as a defense for Soviet on the city of Stalingrad in theU.S.S.R as the World War II took place. It is considered as thegreatest battle of Russian’s Great Patriotic War. On the otherhand, most historians consider it as the greatest battle of theentire conflict witnessed during the World War II. It played a keyrole to the end of German’s advance into the Soviet Union.9.Battle of Midway/ Battle of the Coral Sea:The battle of the Coral Sea was one of the battles that were foughtin the Pacific Ocean during World War II. It was fought between 4 Mayand 8 May in 1942 (Spielvogel 672). It took place between theImperial United state and Japanese Navy and Australia. The battle ofMidway occurred in the Pacific Ocean it occurred approximately onemonth after the battle of the Coral Sea.10.Potsdam Declaration: it refers to a statement that called for the surrender of Japan inWorld War II. It outlined the terms of surrender for the Empire ofJapan. Initially, Japan rejected the declaration this led to atomicbombing of its cities (Nagasaki and Hiroshima). Much debate has beenraised on whether the declaration was intended to be acceptablewithout the decision to use nuclear weapons.


Spielvogel,Jackson. WesternCivilization.Massachusetts:CengageLearning, 2014. Print.